Health care services are all services provided by the country its citizen as a private sector or in as a private sector. It includes all pharmacies, clinics, hospitals and human resources from doctors, nurses, medical and technical engineers, researchers and all those people working in Health care field.
There are four types of health care, primary healthcare, secondary healthcare, and tertiary healthcare, and quaternary care. Primary healthcare means the first aid the can be provided to the patient and it can be provided by a family doctor, a nurse a or a physician assistant and it is considered the first contact for a patient to consult with health care professionals. (Haggerty et al., 2007)Secondary health care it’s a specific expert care provided in hospitals that provided to a patient, in which specialist treatment provided by a professionals when the referred to them.Tertiary care provided to a patient that come from a primary or secondary health doctors, which means that this patient needs an advanced medical care with complex surgical and medical process and more investigation about his status. cardiac surgery, neural surgery, severe burns and cancer treatment are examples of tertiary care services.Quaternary care means that the patient needs a high level of advance medical care which cannot be widely provided, and it is restricted to limited number of health care centers.
Political economyDFID defined the Political economy as “an analysis that concerned with the interaction of political and economic processes in a society, and the distribution of power and wealth between different groups and individuals, and the processes that create, sustain and transform these relationships over time.” DFID, 2009Bueuran et al.(2011) defined it as “In its modern form, political economy studies refer to the study of the relations between political and economic processes which involve several factors such as incentives, relationships, and the distribution of power between various interest groups in society, all of whom have an impact on development outcomes”.Health economicsMorris et al.
(2012) defined health economics as “Health economics is the application of economic theory, models and empirical techniques to the analysis of decision-making by individuals, health care providers and governments with respect to health and health care”Political economy of improved health careIn the developing countries, the health care service is provided by the government to guarantee that the people that suffer from poverty can receive minimal level of health care services, governments put fees for government services, to use these fees to be a financial option for the health care sector. Even the countries that provide the health services as a free service introduced fees (Gilson et al., 1995)County and its government may provides health care services by force people to pay fees and taxes to earn money to improve health care services, it may creates a control and prevention program that may lead to decrees to be infected with diseases. California for example, created a tobacco control and prevention in 1988, since that date smoking prevalence dropped from 22.7% in 1989 to 12.
6% in 2012 (Cox, Barry, Glantz, & Barnes, 2014)Another example, Philippine government increased taxes on tobacco, as a result it generated an additional finances to improve the health care system for the poor people. Moreover, it reduced the leading cause of non-communicable diseases (Boyce, 993). Increasing the money to health care sector is a good way to improved this sector. Several countries spent millions of dollars on the health care sector, the United States, for example, spent $3.2 trillion per person on healthcare services in 2015 and it standing as the first country in the world for per-capita healthcare spending money, (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2015b).But some countries expend more money on other sectors rather than health care sector, Indonesia for example, expends on health care services just 6.2% of total government expenditure in 2011, where as it’s expenditure on fuel and energy sector was 18% (World Bank, 2009) .Some other countries like Bangladesh, even though it has a low expenditure on health care services, but it has a lowest total fertility rate, the longest life expectancy, the lowest infant rates in south Asia when comparing it with the neighbor countries (Meisburger, 2012).