Healthcare acquired Infections also known as monoclonal Infections are defined as an Infection obtained by a patient 48 hours or later after admission Into a healthcare service.
Any infections thought to be obtained prior to 48 hours are considered to be obtained within the community (Gould et al, 2000). This standard of the 48 hour Inoculation period is however arbitrary as it has remained the standard for many years despite the variable rate of Incubation In different bacteria (Amyl et al, 2003). It also includes infections acquired by patients after discharge and occupational infections among staff.It is a major Issue in health care services as it increases mortality rate, In 2007 alone, 9,000 deaths were recorded as a result of MRS. and Colostomies difficult (NICE, 2012).
The cost Incurred by the INS as a result of Has Is approximately 1 billion each year (NICE, 2012). Counteracted species, Anaerobic Gram negative bacillus, Candida Albanians, Colostomies difficult (C. Dillies), Coagulate negative staphylococci, Commands acidosis, Interrogator species, Intercourse species, Escherichia cool (E. CoolsExtended Spectrum beta-lactates producing Gram-negative organisms, Glycoside resistant interconnect, Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus phosgene), Group B Streptococcus, Group G Streptococcus, Glycoside resistant interconnect, Kielbasa species, Nonmetallic Resistant Staphylococcus erasures (MRS.), Nonmetallic Sensitive Staphylococcus erasures (MASS), Nourish, Pantone agglomerate, Protests species, Pseudonymous reassuring, Respiratory Tract Infections, Seriate species, Stenographers melancholia, Streptococcus pneumonia (Pneumatics),Streptococcus species (alpha- hemolytic), Surgical Site Infections and urinary Tract Infections, these are all varieties of infections associated with Hash’s (Gould et al, 2000. NICE, 2012.
Taylor et al, 2001. INS, 2009. Hassle, 2006.
Wheel Dad Health Board, 2014). The chart below shows which type of infection Is most predominantly acquired In a healthcare setting. (Wheel Dad Health Board, 2014) Pathogens enter the patient’s body via portals of entry such as respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, originate tract or breaks in the surface of the skin, from small abrasions to surgical wounds.
Due to the increase of invasive procedures used in today’s medicine, such as IV lines catheters etc. , pathogens can gain direct entry Into the bloodstream and tissue (Gould et a’, 2000). Once they have entered the body and intended target site it thrives by obtaining all its nutrients from the host and multiply rapidly and colonies (INS, 2009). If the host is susceptible to disease then these pathogens will cause Illness. Patients in hospitals or other health care environment tend to be more vulnerable to Infection due to their already weak Immune system sees able to fight infection (Wheel Dad Health Board, 2014).The virulence of pathogens is dependent on several factors, such as the size of the inoculating dose, the host’s immune system (Gould et al, 2000). The wide spread over use of antibiotics is also a major issue as it can lead to micro-organisms becoming resistant to treatment of antibiotics. Antibiotics need to be avoided where possible; if an antibiotic is needed then a suitable one at the lowest dose should be prescribed.
It is also alarming the amount of antibiotic found in human food, due to the treatment of animals, e. Antibiotics administered to cows in their feed in the treatment of mastitis (Taylor et al, 2001). Due to the amount of contact we have with antibiotics, pathogens can mutate by either preventing the antibiotic from reaching its target by a change in its cell wall making it resilient against the antibiotic, by a change in its antigen camouflaging itself and imitating another cell, it can also avoid antibiotics by hiding in the body cells.Another mutation has been known to aggressively destroy antibiotics by the release of toxins which increase the virulence of the pathogen Gould et al, 2000).
Transmission of these infections can arise from endogenous infection, where the pathogens originate from the same individual, organisms are transferred from a reservoir to new sites where they colonies and cause infection. Exogenous, where pathogens are spread person to person via touch.Poor hand hygiene can attribute to the spread of infection, contact with contaminated body fluids, inhalation of air bourn microbes, cross contamination of foods, Insects can transmit pathogens to food or via bites, and foamiest can carry pathogens (INS, 2009) the reservoir of pathogens can revive on surfaces for months and can thereby be a continuous source of transmission if no regular preventive surface disinfection is performed (Kramer et al, 2006). Healthcare setting Infection control is maintained by training healthcare workers and ensuring that they comply with Infection control policies and procedures.Education of patients, careers and healthcare workers in good personal hygiene, thorough hand washing before and after any contact with patients is a simple, low cost and effective at preventing the spread of infections. Correct hand washing technique is monstrance in the diagram located on page 4 (INS, 2009). According to Hassle (2006), if all healthcare workers follow correct hand washing procedures it should decrease the instance of infection by a third. (INS, 2009) Alcohol hand rubs are encouraged to be utilized by all within the healthcare environment, by staff patients and visitors.
It can kill up to 99. % of bacteria; however this also includes good bacteria which can upset the balance of the body natural flora (INS, 2009). Personal protective equipment (APE) should be utilized including loves and aprons when in contact with patients.
However some pathogens can penetrate APE, so it is vital to wash hands even if APE is utilized. Sepsis is very important in the sterilization of invasive devises. All waste needs to be dealt with accordingly, sharps need to be safely used and disposed of in a sharps box and disposed of correctly and promptly, in yellow bags, blue bags need to be utilized for waste that needs to be autoclaves.Appropriate waste disposal is an essential duty of care and is covered by legislation. Incorrect and neglectful waste disposal can lead to fines or prosecution (Gould et al, 2000). Clothing may be laundered separately and in red bags to prevent cross contamination.
Patients who are known to have an infectious disease may be quarantined or “barrier nursed” to safeguard other patients from contracting the infection. The screening and heat-treating of blood products is essential to prevent the transmission of pathogens from the donor to the patient (Gould et al, 2000).This could be contributed to by the shortages of trained nurses within hospitals. Staff are under increased pressures to carry out their role and do not have sufficient amounts of time to hanged personal protective equipment and wash their hand between each and every patient throughout their shift (Gould, D.
2004). Escherichia coli also known as E. Coli appears to be the most predominant HA in local hospitals and healthcare settings in Characteristic.The factors that attribute to this is the rate at which E.
Coli divide, approximately once every twenty minutes (Gould et al, 2000), the vast quantity of E. Coli strains. The most common are the urinary tract infections which if infection spreads into the blood stream it can lead to academia.
A few creosotes of E. Coli carry an antigen that protects them from the host’s immune system of the white blood cells internships that destroy bacteria via phagocytes (Gould et al, 2000).Approximately a third of e. Coli is now resistant to the antibiotic penicillin.
(How stuff works, 2001). In conclusion prevention and control of healthcare acquired infections (Hash’s) The I-J is working hard to lower the amount of Hash’s. They are a priority issue and for prevention and control of infection to work effectively, critical activities such as good and hygiene, utilization of personal protective equipment has to be embedded into minimizing potential risk and exposure.Hand hygiene and APE is a major method of decontamination used routinely to reduce risk of Hash’s. Reducing and preventing Hash’s is essential for all of those connected to the healthcare environment ensuring everyone is at a minimal risk of exposure.
All staff must transparently demonstrate good infection control and it is vitally important that in today’s society continually using procedures to break the chain of infection. Word count; 1,523.