The Manager report was a product of its time – produced in response to a moral panic, where youth delinquency, sexual experimentation, newfound international influence and a shift In the family and social dynamics were creating instability and insecurity In society; the Manager report was a poorly handled government Investigation which fuelled the social panic In a time referred to as “The golden years”. The report Itself had very Immediate consequences, with new legislation being rushed through in heed of the upcoming election, though it had little impact on the outcome.
The focus of the Manager report and subsequent response mimed to only graze the surface, as true social reform seemed to be the only answer. In a way it acted as a prophecy, but though Juvenile delinquency continued to increase, the panic regarding youth slowly died down – demonstrating the fixation of society was not a true reflection of the situation, but rather the threat of new ideas in a changing society: the emergence of the “teenager”. Social environment: Society was undergoing great change: with widespread arbitration, the Integration of Maori Into Peaked society, a new economic security with women and youth In high employment. Deridingly this was the drifting of ideas and family dynamics in the home. It was a time of questioning and criticism was evident from the more traditional population – an easy place to lay the blame for a “delinquent generation”. Home: Links: post war suburbia http://www. Tetra. Covet. NZ/en/suburbs/page-5 Family Matters, Daley, Brown, 1998 Child rearing attitudes http://recommendations. Walkout. AC. NZ/bloodstream/handle/10289/2090/? Sequence=1 The sass saw big changes to the family structure.
Post-war, families were very strained – though reunited, the impacts of the war and separation caused cracks in any families. Women had become solo parents during the war as their partners were on duty; some never returned, and those that did often were burdened with the psychological effects of the war. This meant that women had to continue to carry the weight of the whole family. The divorce rate was increasing, though the age of marriage was still relatively young – sass’s was amidst the baby boom.
These changes were evident In a ministry of social development report, which stated: “The extent to which almost all adults married, married young and had many children was very different from the pattern in the pre-war years. Social expectations and values prevailing from the sass to 1970 reinforced specific notions of family. The labor market, taxation, social assistance, laws and public polices supported females of a specific family type during this period. ” In the pre-war years a family functioned very the keeping of the house, as well as the general welfare of the family, controlling the finances so that the ends always met.
A husband’s Job was to bring home the money. However this was challenged in the post-war years when an increasing number of women chose to work, and financial support was readily available. Subtle changes in he roles in households caused friction and tension for the older generation whose values were very stoic and traditional. The opposition felt by this section of the population increased the tendency to blame the perceived Juvenile delinquency on this factor (see http://www. Ms. Covet. Z/about-Ms-and-our-work/publications- resources/Journals-and-magazines/social-policy-Journal/spasm/35-focus-on- families. HTML#DifferentgenerationsDifferentexperiences5). Work: Links: New Zealand women’s working patterns http://www. Population. Org. NZ/WAP- content/uploads/2010/01 /NZ-viol-30-1 and-2_hellcat-inalienably. PDF http:// www. Ministry. Net. Z/culture/children-and-adolescents) 1950 yearbook, working conditions http://www. Stats. Covet. NZ/New_Zealand_Official_Yearbooks/1950/ _1 _277574 state of economy http://eh. Et/encyclopedia/an-economic-history-of-new-Zealand-in-the-nineteenth- and-twentieth-centuries/ With women at work, and youth at work there was more money to go around, spent on luxuries which hadn’t been an option before. During the war many families had to work in factories and do the work that had previously been considered a ‘mans Job’ and even after the war ended many women chose to continue their work in Jobs to supplement the family income and afford small usuries (there was also the growing trend for “keeping up with the Jones”).
This is reflected by a graph given in http://www. Population. Org. NZ/WAP-content/uploads/ 2010/01 /NZ-viol-30-and-2_hellcat-inalienably. PDF on page 115. The graph shows an overall decrease in the % of women at work across all ages measured in 1950-1960 compared to those previous (during the war) and the following years, however what the graph doesn’t indicate is the true area of interest – the number of women at work prior to the war, as this differed greatly to that of the post period.
This was the basis f Judgment and criticism in the community. Women who worked were seen to be more neglectful of their children as they were no longer around the home 2417 to greet their children as they arrived home from school etc, and so children were becoming misguided when left to their own devices. (see Illustrated History Of New Zealand, Wright, Matthew). Women at work also indicated a growing financial prosperity – families had more money left to spend after covering the necessities.
Though parliament argued “the higher cost of living, brought about partly by the increasing desire for material goods, was forcing women into paid employment. ” (http://www. Ministry. Net. NZ/culture/children-and- adolescents-1940-60/post-war-family) This idea was supported by accusations of youth employment being too high and paying too much: All shook up states that between 1951 and 1956, the percentage of youth earning over $300 a year rose from 14% to 44%. It seemed children had money and time to spend – a foundation for misadventure.
Links: arbitration stats for NZ http://www. Stats. Covet. NZ/browse_for_stats/ people_and_communities/Geographic-areas/urban-rural-profile/historical- context. Asps Maori arbitration http://www. Tetra. Covet. Z/en/urban-Maori/page-l The arbitration of the population and the integration of Maori into Peaked culture created change and instability. Large numbers were flocking from the rural districts to find work in manufacturing industries in the city. This put pressure on housing in the cities, and the government’s response was hastily erected state housing.
These communities were available only to large families on low income, and as a result the economic status of these communities were not very high. This was compounded by the fact that these communities lacked the facilities and infrastructure of developed areas, and as it was so new community values and stability was lacking. The population of urbanites Maori increased considerably over these years – debatable the most rapid arbitration experienced by any population. “This saw a shift from around 25 percent of Moor being urbanites in 1945 to some 75 percent by the mid-sass.
The increasing visibility of Moor more firmly drew the wider publics attention to their long experience of distinctly poorer outcomes from education and paid employment, and to their health and housing. ” (http://www. Stats. Covet. NZ/ domino/external b/ministries. SF/O/a95f3e9878c148a7cc256b25006f548e? Abandonment) the cultural questioning created further instability – initially the Maori were opposed, as it was assumed that the cultures between the two would clash and not be compatible in communities, though slowly this idea changed.
Children felt the stresses of arbitration and relocation: a Hut Valley youth study (one of the most rapidly developed areas) found that the behavior pattern had been remarkably altered: “satisfaction of basic drives for hunger, thirst, sex and aggressiveness becoming more evident. ” (Family matters, Daley, brown PAP). This as reflected by 2. 3% of school aged children being maladjusted in the rural areas, compared to a massive 7. 6% in urbanites areas in 1950. This gap continued to grow.
Youth were also left with lots of time on their hands – in rural lifestyles the children had been needed to help maintain the farm, to contribute to the family maintenance, however the demands of them were very different in the city, and so many chose to work for their own money. A new environment meant new ideas and plenty of freedom from the prying eyes of adults. Large sections of the population were becoming wound up by the social and economic changes occurring in New Zealand society. Youth were growing up in a new environment, and surely the repercussions of this instability would have undesirable repercussions.
The focus was placed on the evolving situation, but little consideration was given to the psychological strain that was placed on youth previously, during the war. Social change was seen as the cause, when in reality it may have been the catalyst in a whole life of insecurity for children originating from the war. Youth culture: Links: mainstream attitudes and values http://acrimoniousness’s. Wiseacres. Myopic+l +-+Values+and+Attitudes+of+the +sass Ministry of social development report on gangs: www. Ms. Covet. NZ/… Ms… /youth-gangs… /youth-gangs-report-full. Co Youth dress and style – the stereotyped boogies and wedgies http:// www. Ministry. Net. NZ/media/photo/boogies Youth congregation – boogies on Queen Street during the sass Youth were being bombarded with international influence of a new kind – no longer the friendly British media but uncharted USA products: American ideals were taking root in the form of fashion, entertainment and attitude. Following the war, New Sealant’s alliances were in a period of change – we were no longer reliant upon the British for protection and guidance, but on the USA as it faced the realities of the cold war.
This caused a wide spread questioning of ideals with in our society, as the American way of life differed from the stoic European ways. This was most evident in the youth – recent developments in technology meant that American media was flooding through New Zealand. The media – mainly what was deemed as “badly written pulp fiction”, new upbeat music, and American movies were demonstrating increasing trends of violence, rebellion, love and lust. The music encouraged attitudes of Rockwell – dancing became an important social event. Mailbags” also became a haven for youth, who often congregated to drink milkshakes and listen to jukebox music. It was the movies however that had arguably the biggest impact. Going to the movies was already a common entertainment for the young, but with the infiltration of American movies like The Golden Man And Rock Around The Clock, adolescents got a real taste and visual snapshot of the culture of American youth. Motorbikes created a tough and widespread look, along with youth “gangs”. The assign evolved: unconventional.
Boys grew their hair longer, girls cut theirs shorter, heavily made up, with lots of Jewelry, outrageous patterns and colors as varied materials were becoming more accessible. Sports Jackets, two-toned cardigans, stove pipe trousers. The rebellion earned youth the titles Boogies and Wedgies, which originally meant false and inferior. This was contrasted by the “devotedly’, a more European style brought across by the sailors, though the ideas of expression, and the resistance of conformity that society was trying to enforce, were the same.
The actions were supported by a more assertive attitude, the most important challenge for the older generations. Adults frowned upon the trend, determined to maintain the division between adult and child. David Usable, a scholar visiting the country in 1957 noted this attitude: “[the] unwarrantably bitter, unfriendly and punitive attitude towards youth that prevails in so many adult circles. One gets the impression that young people as a group are not only less accepted and admired than in the united states but they are also actively disliked by most adults. “(All Shook Up, Redder, Yaks).
Yet the “teenager” personified the adult fears, fantasies and projections of the post- society, the section which was growing up, experiencing bodily changes, sexual urges, more time and awareness of pairs, and trying to find their place in society. When the sexual tendencies of some youth came to light, there was uproar. Sex had up until this point been a hush-hush topic only mentioned behind the blinds in society. The idea that children were having sex sent parents reeling. The media honed in on a series of events including a scandal in the lower hut, resulting in 65 charges for “carnal Knowledge”.
Rumors rampaged through society: whisperings of mass orgies, widespread availability of condoms (referred to as French letters) – including claims by Truth that they were being dealt and distributed at some schools – and children using the mailbags as a meet up, to find themselves a partner, and girls doing sexual favors to initiate into milk bar gangs – the Potent incident of 20 June 1954 caused uproar when a young girl aged 15 ran away from home, and when making a police statement admitted to belonging to a gang which “mainly met for sex purposes,” and that she was worried for some of the younger members.
This was only days before the Parker-Helm murder case which shocked New Zealand and the world – a murder achieved by two young girls, with sexual, illusionary and possible American pulp fiction links. (See So Brilliantly Clever, Graham, Peter, 2011) The media fed the frenzy, with Truth providing emotive and dramatic reports, only escalating the situation. One article stated “an American-style teenage wasteland… Warring juveniles, delinquents, teenage sex, no parental supervision, all-night dives, blaring jukeboxes – even a cult built around the banned books of Mackey Spillage. (Truth, Redder Yaks, 2011) With such biased media its no surprise that the public got utterly caught up. The government had to be seen to be taking action, and so the Special Committee on Moral Delinquency in Children and Adolescents was initiated, maybe only as a knee-Jerk reaction to quell public pressure. The report. Manager report http://www. Gutenberg. Org/eBooks/14760 O. C. Manager biography http://www. Tetra. Covet. Z/en/biographies/mime/ manager-Oswald-chattel The Manager report was a government document constructed at the height of panic, intended to quell society’s need for “action”; it was poorly constructed, implicitly biased; though still used as the basis for a rushed government response. The Special Committee on Moral Delinquency in Children and Adolescents was constructed on 23 July 1954, consisting of 7 members, and lead by Chairman Oswald C. Manager. Other members comprised of R. A. Bloodworm, representative from the children’s court; J.
Elegant, Head Master of Christopher Boys high School; G. L. Mcleod, Division of child hygiene, Department of health; L. V. O’Brien Vice-President of Women’s Auxiliary of Inter-Church Council on Public Affairs: Arch-Diocesan President,Catholic Women’s League; Rev. J. S. Somerville, chairman of the inter- church council on public affairs; and F. N. State, president of the Junior NZ chamber of Commerce (he was also the youngest member at 44 years o f age). The committee hearings, which included personal accounts, as well as written submissions came in from throughout the country. 45 people, either as representatives of organizations or privately, were heard; alongside 203 written submissions and direct correspondence heard by the committee. Youth allegedly involved in cases such as the Potent incident were not called to hearings, however the committee relied upon secondary evidence from welfare officers, police reports and on occasion secondary school sources regarding the student involved. Many professionals also presented their cases, though naturally most of the submissions felt strongly that youth were going off the rails and something serious must be done.
The public became very involved; particularly in submissions about media which they felt should be banned. The hearings spanned 45 days in total, beginning in Wellington on the 3rd of August and finishing in Auckland on the 10th of September. 10 days after this the full report was tabled in parliament. It came to 30 conclusions, accompanied by 20 recommendations. The speed at which the committee functioned was due to O. C. Manager’s strict instruction – being aware of the political pressure of an election, the report was to be released prior for the national government to utilize.
Manager set the timetable for the report, decided and allocated the roles to be performed, and dictated and edited much of the final report. Though the report has been labeled as corrupt on many occasions as a result of Manager’s dominance over the report, alongside allegations by his own committee of his “fundamentalist” and “puritan aralias” attitudes; it was the hastiness and abruptness of the report which really heightened the moral panic (though its content did play a large role). Http:// www. Ministry. Net. Z/the-manager-report-on-]venial-moral-delinquency-is- released The report focused on the “excessive wages for teenagers, working mothers, absent parents and lack of supervision, a decline in family life, a lack of recreational facilities in new suburbs, and sexual precociousness in girls” http:// blob. Tape. Covet. NZ/2011/09/16/this-month-last-century-September-1954/ as the main cause for Juvenile delinquency, and had strong references towards a need to return to traditional Christian values to solve these problems.
It provided recommendations for action and legislation change in areas of Education, Censorship, and Crime. The report was distributed to every household in New Zealand, and the government responded accordingly. Unsurprisingly society was caught up in the document – they believed New Zealand to be on the brink of a complete breakdown in youth behavior in society, and the Manager Report gave them a sense of security – officially confirming their fears, and providing easy overspent “fix its” for a deep and underlying problem.
At the time, the report was accepted and its recommendations applied without question, but as the panic died down, hindsight lead many to doubt the true use and reliability of the Manager report. Distributing the Manager report with the family benefit: a social security district office clerk. Outcomes http://www. Tetra. Covet. NZ/en/photograph/28261/manager- report http://www. Ministry. Net. NZ/the-manager-report-on-]venial-moral-delinquency-is- released indecent publications exemption notice: archives on welfare http://archives. Covet. Z/sites/default/files/welfare. PDF The Manager report saw a very immediate political response, and it further heightened the social hype, however it didn’t see any long-term impacts on youth behavior and over time the whole event was seen with a new perspective, belittling the situation. Political Surprisingly, the report had little impact on the November 1954 general election. Though the report had been rushed through with this in mind, the labor government also announced its support for the document and so it was not pivotal in National winning at the polls.
The report’s recommendations involved three law changes in quite short succession. Interestingly, the drafts for these amendments were written be Mr… Manager himself. He was involved with the creation of the Indecent Publications Amendment act 1954, which broadened the definitions of “indecent” and “obscene”, to ‘all productions which are harmful in that they place undue emphasis on sex, crime, or horror. ” This bill was rushed through in Just one week, and created an increased grip on censorship.
Importers and book sellers were now pressured to register with the Justice department and label all books they sell. The Job of the Censorship Committee, was to weigh up whether a book or comic “tended to deprave” any class or group. This infuriated book sellers, who felt it was a “bureaucratic intrusion beyond what was needed to stamp out a small amount of undesirable literature. ” (All Shook Up, Yaks Redder; peg 89)The influx of American pulp fiction was streamed slightly by the act, though it had little effect on the behaviors in society.
It was later acknowledged by the government that the act caused more problems than it solved. The act next was in regards to the Child Welfare Amendment Act (No. ) 1954, which allowed Children’s Courts to treat youth engaging in sexual behavior as delinquent; and the third was the Police Offences Amendment Act 1954, which made it an offence to sell contraceptives to children under 16 years of age. These changes were the most significant acts made by the government in the face of youth delinquency, yet it only touched the tip of the iceberg. The Child Welfare Amendment Act (No. ) 1954 had the most potential to create change, as it changed the idea and treatment of offending or at risk youth, however the focus had to be on changing the environment children were in – reading behaviors that American media and availability of contraception had only catalysts. The youth behavior wasn’t curbed by the Manager report, though Social Juvenile delinquency continued to increase – according to a graph of court appearances from Family Matters page 192, appearances in Children’s Court. The statistics show a steady increase from 1950-1960 with a 3000 person increase over this period.
At the end of the sass this trend increased further at a steeper gradient. These are the only statistics available relating to Juvenile delinquency. It as noted in the Manager report in part IV Has Juvenile Morality Increased? That “There are not any statistics available either in new Zealand or elsewhere from which reliable guidance may be obtained. Sexual morality is, by its very nature, a clandestine vice. ” This comment emphasizes the lack of statistical data available at the time due to the nature of the crimes in question.
This itself brings the justification for the uproar about Juvenile delinquency into question- were a few shocking crimes, ‘e, the Parker-Helm murder case, a true reflection of the youth of he day, or was this a massive and unsupported generalization? It is interesting to see that even after the Manager report was released, significant and dramatic crimes by youth still flooded the media. However, this is at odds to the claim by “frontier of dreams, p 332, that “the big fuss occurred as appearances before the children’s court were declining. There was an upsurge in cases from the mid-sass, but by then people were looking for trouble. This brings about a good point in that the nature of sex and particularly how society responded and treated the idea had a significant impact on statistics and Justification. When awareness increased, the reported crime would have increased accordingly. In 1955 both the Jukebox murder and the Milk-bar murder resulted in two deaths – a earldom Freddie foster was hung for killing Sharon Ossification after she “spurned” him. After Just 7 minutes in court, he was found guilty – a “victim of crime comics” (http://www. Tape. Covet. NZ). Payday black stabbed arrear old Alan Jacques over a girl in what was dubbed the jukebox murder.
Both were hung in what was a busy year for hangmen. Though these were still big events to flood the media, media interest would soon die away ND along with it so did public concern. Police and other inquiries into teenage behavior In the later sass and sis passed with nary a murmur… Public interest in the affairs of youth had come and gone. ” This argument is supported by an investigation in 1964 in which over 400 parent s and teenagers were interviewed concerning “sexual misbehaver” in Panderer and Grey Lynn. Though Truth “squawked” about the events, there was negligible public interest.
The Manager report was a self-fulfilling prophecy – youth were still going off the rails – maybe even ore so than predicted, yet society hadn’t yet fallen over, and so for many, there was little reason to worry, and the media followed this trend. The sass saw the rise of rock n roll alongside a new optimism and shaggy attitude. Again this was frowned upon by the elder generations; who saw the openness about sex, drugs and Rockwell as a depravity. However the youth attitudes provided big changes in attitude in society as a whole – this generation had grown up with more stability and they were happier and less pressured as a whole.
The rock n roll generation and following pipes wouldn’t have come about if it hadn’t been for the Juvenile delinquents unchallenged. The Manager Report, which had initially sparked mass interest and action, was increasingly questioned. Professionals and academics attacked and critiqued the ideas with growing condemnation. This can be seen by reports like “yesterdays crisis and tomorrows schools” a report by David Stuart on the morals inquiry and the politics of educational reform. Today, most of New Zealand wouldn’t recall the Report’s very existence, unlike the Springbok Tour or Vietnam War; the Manager report was a product of its time.
Though it initially caused a massive upset in New Sealant’s “Pavlov society’, it held few long term implications. It is a significant event in that it epitomizes New Zealand society’s thinking and public attitude at the time. It shaped and questioned the sass post war youth and their behaviors when NZ was in a state of change with newly stabilized communities. Though it provided the basis of a political response, there were no significant changes in the long term as youth delinquency and public interest split paths. The youth delinquency of the sass didn’t result in the collapse of society as the
Manager report had predicted. Moral panic which preceded the report quickly subsided once government action was evident, though the response did little to quell the adolescent delinquency in society, it was a perceived fix-it. The media, which had provoked the public response, lost interest even though the social/economic questions of post-war society and the changing ideals remained. The Manager report responded to a demand, reflecting the ideas and culture of the people of the time, however its lack of long-term consequences made it a product of the era, a reflection of New Zealand in the sass.