Hello class, in my paper I will be discussing fourdisorders involving the nervous system. These orders are called Respiratory Acidosis, RespiratoryAlkalosis, Metabolic Alkalosis and Metabolic Acidosis. RespiratoryAcidosis is a condition when the lungs can’t function enough to remove carbon dioxide that lead to acidic bodily fluids in theblood. Respiratory acidosis is abnormally high Pc02 in system arterial blood over45mmhg. When Ph levels drop below 7.35 then that is when the acidosis condition is determined. There are twoconditions of respiratory acidosis called acute respiratory and chronic respiratory acidosis. Acuterespiratory acidosis develops when the lungs loses function.
Chronic respiratory happens whenventilation decreases along with the increase concentration of carbon dioxide thoseresults in low levels of ph in the blood. Respiratory acidosis can be caused by lung diseases like asthma,bronchitis and pneumonia. Airways that are blocked, vomiting can lead to respiratory acidosis.Kidney’s compensate for chronic respiratory disorders by either holding on to ordumping bicarbonate. Also Ph drops by 0.08 units and HC03, increases by 1 mEq/L per 10mmHgincrease in PAC02.
Respiratory alkalosis is a condition where thebalance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood is decreased the disturbance in acid and basebalance due to alveolar hyperventilation. Metabolic acidosis systemic arterial blood HC03 level dropsbelow 22 mEql/ liter causing the pH level to decrease. Occurrence of respiratory alkalosishappens when you breathe too fast or too deep and carbon dioxide levels drop too low then causes thepH in the blood to rise and become too alkaline Ph increases by 0.8 units and HCO3decreases by 2mEq/L per 10 mmHg decrease in PaCo2. When the blood becomes too acidic is whenrespiratory acidosis occurs. The main causes of respiratory alkalosis are panic attacks andanxiety, but there are several factors such as drug use, fever, infections and even pregnancy. There aretwo mechanisms pertaining to respiratory alkalosis rapid cell buffering and a decrease in netrenal acid excretion. Respiratory alkalosis is not a condition that’s life threatening.
Levels ofpH should not be 7.5 or greater. Hyperventilation is the main cause of thiscondition. One common alternate treatment is a method of breathing into a paper bag several timesduring normal stages.
This method gives the body the amount of carbon dioxide that is requiredand brings back oxygen levels where they need to be. Dizziness, bloating, confusion, feelinglightheaded, and dry mouth are all signs of respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic Acidosis is a condition where there is toomuch acid in the body fluids. Metabolic Acidosis occurs when the body produces too muchacid. Also it can occur when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. There are threeforms of metabolic acidosis such as diabetic acidosis that only occurs if your bodylacks insulin, hyperchloremic acidosis that results from the loss of sodium bicarbonate, lactic acidosisthat occurs when there are too much lactic acid in your body and renal tubular acidosis thathappens when the kidneys are unable to excrete acids into the urine. Metabolic acidosis respirationwill blow off C02 causing the amount of acid in the blood to decrease.
Central chemoreceptorbecomes set off by low pH levels that increase the amount of breathing. Stimulation of thechemoreceptor’s core weakens the hypoventilation required to fully correct the Ph. Even though,hyperventilation is the only way to retain acid. Normally metabolic acidosis is leveled at 1-1.3 mmHG for every 1.mEq/L in serum HC03 concentration. If the level does not maintain itselfat normal level it becomes a mixed acid base.
Causes for metabolic acidosis includes cancer andliver failure, dehydration, some drugs such as aspirin and kidney disease. Like many acidosismetabolic doctors may give you baking soda to raise your pH balance.Metabolic Alkalosis is a metabolic condition inwhich the pH of tissue is elevated beyond normal range which is 7.35-7.45.
This then becomes theresult of decreased hydrogen ion concentration, leading to increased bicarbonate, or a direct resultof increased bicarbonate concentrations. In some cases there could possibly be little or nocompensation. In chronic metabolic alkalosis, the PaCO2 should increase by 5 mmHg for every 10 mEq/L Metabolicalkalosis is often caused by lack of oxygen high fevers, in a range of highaltitudes, hyperventilation, liver disease and lung disease.
Symptoms and signs of metabolic alkalosisinclude severe headaches, lethargy and tetany. Treatments may include saline. Patients witha severe case of metabolic alkalosis require urgent correction of blood pH also hemofiltration or hemodialysis is an option. (James L.Lewis 2016) With metabolic acidosis, respiration willincrease to blow C02, decreasing the amount of acid in the blood then the respiration system canonly help retain CO2 to no greater than 50-55 mm Hg to compensate for metabolic alkalosis. Under normal conditions the elderly are able to maintainwater and electrolytes. Elderly people are more at risk of acidosis because of the highincidence of pulmonary disorders, especially IN Pneumonia cases.
The elderly have a lower percentageof fluids in tissues primarily due to loss of musclemass. Old age decreases in respiratory and renal functioning may compromiseacid-base balance by slowing the exhalation of CO2 andthe excretion of excess acids in urine.