Herbal Medicines

Part I: Introduction Alternative medical systems can only exist when there is an identifiable, regularized and authoritative medical orthodoxy, such as arose in the west during the nineteenth-century, to which they can function or act as an alternative. According to Robert Jutte, labels used to describe health belief systems other than modern, scientific, Western medicine, are either misleading or carry semantic load, as for example “alternative”, “marginal”, “fringe”, “unorthodox” or “irregular”, and historians have had some difficulty simply to name and describe without connotative judgement.

Jutte found that in the period from the mid-nineteenth century to the first two decades of the twentieth, the opposition of the developing medical establishment in Germany, based on modern scientific medicine, had resulted in the threat from homoepaths, naturopaths, mesmerists and others being stemmed by legal and organizational measures. Arnold S. Relman has remarked that in the best kind of medical practice, all proposed treatments must be tested objectively, and that in the end there will only be treatments that pass and those that do not, those that are proven worthwhile and those that are not.

He asked ‘Can there be any reasonable “alternative”? ‘(NEJM, 1998) In respect of alternative medicine since the 1970s in North America, Great Britain and elsewhere, there has been a tendency for the terms ‘alternative’ and ‘complementary’ to be used interchangeably to describe a wide diversity of therapies that attempt to use the self-healing powers of the body by amplifying natural recuperative processes to restore health. By 1990, approximately 60 million Americans had used one or more complementary or alternative therapies to address health issues, according to a nationwide survey in the United States published in 1993 by David Eisenberg.

A study published in the November 11, 1998 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that 42% of Americans had used complementary and alternative therapies, up from 34% in 1990. However, despite the growth in patient demand for complementary medicine, most of the early alternative/complementary medical centers failed. The use of plants as medicines predates written human history. Many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food also yield useful medicinal compounds.

The use of herbs and spices in cuisine developed in part as a response to the threat of food-borne pathogens. Studies show that in tropical climates where pathogens are the most abundant, recipes are the most highly spiced. Further, the spices with the most potent antimicrobial activity tend to be selected. In all cultures vegetables are spiced less than meat, presumably because they are more resistant to spoilage.

Many of the common weeds that populate human settlements, such as nettle, dandelion and chickweed, also have medicinal properties. Part II: Company Profile 2. 1 Company Background/ History.

DOK ALTERNATIBO CORPORATION is engage into Franchising Business of Agriculture, Industrial and Alternative Medicine Products local and abroad. It is owned and operated by the incorporators who voluntarily agreed to form a stock corporation under the laws of the Republic of the Philippines. The company was duly registered in the list of Food And Drug Administration as Manufacturer with a plant located in Quezon Avenue, Digos City in addition to the Licenses to Operate as Distributor. Its main business is herbal products/ clinic distribution and therapeutic massage in different areas of the country as part of alternative medicine practice.

2. 2Description of Company Location Dok Alternatibo has a branch here in Cebu just across the USC gym facing San Sciangko Street. 2. 3Business/Industrial Services Offered in the Market Manufacturing Organic and Herbal Products for Human Being, Plant and Animals as well as Agricultural and Industrial Products. 2. 4Market Description Herbal Products, Food Supplements and Cosmetics Products 2. 5Product Manufactured * Herbal Products * Food Supplements * Cosmetics Products Part III: Industrial Process Description 3. 1General Production Process 10 Herbal Medicines 1. Akapulko(Cassia alata).

– also known as “bayabas-bayabasan” and “ringworm bush” in English, this herbal medicine is used to treat ringworms and skin fungal infections. Benefits & Treatment of Akapulko: • External Use: Treatment of skin diseases: Tinea infections, insect bites, ringworms, eczema, scabies and itchiness. Mouthwash in stomatitis Internal use: Expectorant for bronchitis and dyspnoea • Alleviation of asthma symptoms • Used as diuretic and purgative • For cough & fever • As a laxative to expel intestinal parasites and other stomach problems. Note: A strong decoction of Akapulko leaves is an abortifacient.

Pregnant women should not take decoction of the leaves or any part of this plant. Preparation & Use: • For external use, pound the leaves of the Akapulko plant, squeeze the juice and apply on affected areas. • As the expectorant for bronchitisand dyspnoea, drink decoction(soak and boil for 10 to 15 minutes)of Akapulko leaves. The same preparation may be used as a mouthwash, stringent, and wash for eczema. • As laxative, cut the plant parts(roots, flowers, and the leaves) in to a manageable size then prepare adecoction Note: The decoction looses its potency if not used for along time.

Dispose leftovers after one day. 2. Ampalaya(Momordicacharantia) – known as “bittergourd” or “bitter melon” in English, it most known as a treatment of diabetes (diabetes mellitus), for the non-insulin dependent patients. Herbal Benefits of Ampalaya: • Good for rheumatism and gout • And diseases of the spleen and liver • Aids in lowering blood sugar levels • Helps in lowering blood pressure • Relives headaches • Disinfects and heals wounds &burns • Can be used as a cough & fever remedy • Treatment of intestinal worms, diarrhea • Helps prevent some types of cancer • Enhances immune system to fight infection.

• For treatment of hemorrhoids • Is an antioxidant and parasiticide • Is antibacterial and antipyretic Preparation & Use of Ampalaya: • For coughs, fever, worms, diarrhea, diabetes, juice Ampalaya leaves and drink a spoonful daily. • For other ailments, the fruit and leaves can both be juiced and taken orally • For headaches wounds, burn sand skin diseases, apply warmed leaves to afflicted area. • Powdered leaves, and the root decoction, may be used as stringent and applied to treat hemorrhoids. • Internal parasites are proven to be expelled when the ampalaya juice, made from its leaves, is extracted.

The ampalaya juice, and grounded seeds is to be taken one spoonful thrice a day, which also treats diarrhea, dysentery, and chronic colitis. 3. Bawang (Allium sativum) –popularly known as “garlic”, it mainly reduces cholesterol in the blood and hence, helps control blood pressure. Health Benefits of Bawang-Garlic: • Good for the heart • Helps lower bad cholesterol levels (LDL) • Aids in lowering blood pressure • Remedy for arteriosclerosis • May help prevent certain types of cancer • Boosts immune system to fight infection • With antioxidant properties • Cough and cold remedy

• Relives sore throat, toothache • Aids in the treatment of tuberculosis • Helps relieve rheumatism pain • With anticoagulant properties Preparation of Bawang-Garlic: • For disinfecting wound, crush and juice the garlic bulb and apply. You may cover the afflicted area with a gauze and bandage. • For sore throat and toothache, peal the skin and chew. Swallow the juice. • Cloves of garlic may be crushed and applied to affected areas to reduce the pain caused by arthritis, toothache, headache, and rheumatism. • Decoction of the bawang bulbs and leaves are used as treatment for fever.

• For nasal congestion, steam and inhale: vinegar, chopped garlic, and water. 4. Bayabas(Psidium guajava) –“guava” in English. It is primarily used as an antiseptic, to disinfect wounds. Also, it can be used as a mouth wash to treat tooth decay and gum infection. Uses of Bayabas : • Antiseptic, astringent & anthelminthic • Kills bacteria, fungi and ameba • Used to treat diarrhea, nose bleeding • For Hypertension, diabetes and Asthma • Promotes menstruation Preparation: • Boil one cup of Bayabas leaves in three cups of water for 8 to 10minutes. Let cool. • Use decoction as mouth wash, gargle.

• Use as wound disinfectant – wash affected areas with the decoction of leaves 2 to 3 times a day. Fresh leaves may be applied to the wound directly for faster healing. • For toothaches, chew the leaves in your mouth. • For diarrhea, boil the chopped leaves for 15 minutes in water, and strain. Let cool, and drink a cup every three to four hours. • To stop nosebleed, densely roll Bayabas leaves, then place in the nostril cavities 5. Lagundi (Vitex negundo) –known in English as the “5-leavedchaste tree”. It’s main use is for the relief of coughs and asthma. Herbal Benefits of Lagundi:

• Relief of asthma & pharyngitis • Recommended relief of rheumatism, dyspepsia, boils, diarrhea • Treatment of cough, colds, fever and flu and other bronchopulmonary disorders • Alleviate symptoms of Chicken Pox • Removal of worms, and boils Preparation & Use: • Boil half cup of chopped fresh or dried leaves in 2 cups of water for 10 to 15 minutes. Drink half cup three times a day. • For skin diseases or disorders, apply the decoction of leaves and roots directly on skin. • The root is specially good for treating dyspepsia, worms, boils, colic and rheumatism. 6. Niyog-niyogan(Quisqualisindica L.

) – is a vine known as “Chinese honey suckle”. It is effective in the elimination of intestinal worms, particularly the Ascaris and Trichina. Only the dried matured seeds are medicinal-crack and ingest the dried seeds two hours after eating (5 to 7 seeds for children & 8 to 10 seeds for adults). If one dose does not eliminate the worms, wait a week before repeating the dose. Benefits & Treatment of Niyog-Niyogan: Almost all of its parts are used individually, or mixed with other ingredients, as remedy to different ailments. In the Philippines, these are taken to rid people of parasitic worms.

Some also use these to help alleviate coughs and diarrhea. Medical experts, advice patients to consult their doctors as improper dosing may cause hiccups. Niyog-niyogan’s leaves are used to cure body pains by placing them on specific problematic areas of the body. Compound decoctions of the leaves of niyog-niyogan are used in India to alleviate flatulence. Preparation & Use: Seeds of niyog-niyogan can be taken as an anthelmintic. These are eaten raw two hours before the patient’s last meal of the day. Adults may take 10 seeds while children 4 to 7 years of age may eat up to four seeds only.

Children from ages 8 to 9 may take six seeds and seven seeds may be eaten by children 10 to 12 years old. Decoctions of its roots are also sometimes used as a remedy for rheumatism while its fruits are used as an effective way to relieve toothaches. 7. Sambong (Blumeabalsamifera) -English name: Blumea camphora. A diuretic that helps in the excretion of urinary stones. It can also be used as an edema. Health Benefits of Sambong: • Good as a diuretic agent • Effective in the dissolving kidney stones • Aids in treating hypertension &rheumatism • Treatment of colds & fever.

• Anti-diarrheic properties • Anti-gastralgic properties • Helps remove worms, boils • Relief of stomach pains • Treats dysentery, sore throat Preparation & Use: • A decoction (boil in water) of Sambong leaves as like tea and drink a glass 3 or 4 times a day. • The leaves can also be crushed or pounded and mixed with coconut oil. • For headaches, apply crushed and pounded leaves on forehead and temples. • Decoction of leaves is used as sponge bath. • Decoction of the roots, on the other hand, is to be taken in as cure for fever. 8. Tsaang Gubat (Ehretiamicrophylla Lam.)

– Prepared like tea, this herbal medicine is effective in treating intestinal motility and also used as a mouthwash since the leaves of this shrub has high fluoride content. Health Benefits of Tsaang Gubat: •Stomach pains •Gastroenteritis •Intestinal motility •Dysentery •Diarrhea or Loose Bowel Movement (LBM) • Mouth gargle • Body cleanser/wash Preparation & Use: • Thoroughly wash the leaves of tsaang gubat in running water. Chop to a desirable size and boil 1cup of chopped leaves in 2 cups of water. Boil in low heat for 15 to 20minutes and drain. • Take a cupful every 4 hours for diarrhea, gastroenteritis and stomach pains.

• Gargle for stronger teeth and prevent cavities. • Drink as tea daily for general good health. 9. Yerba Buena (Clinopodiumdouglasii) – commonly known as Peppermint, this vine is used as an analgesic to relive body aches and pain. It can be taken internally as adecoction or externally by pounding the leaves and applied directly on the afflicted area. Yerba Buena may be used to treat: • Arthritis • Head ache • Tooth aches • Mouth wash • Relief of intestinal gas • Stomach aches • Indigestion • Drink as tea for general good health. Preparation & Use: • Wash fresh Yerba Buena leaves in running water.

Chop to size for dried leaves, crush) and boil 2teaspoons of leaves in a glass of water. Boil in medium heat for 15to 20 minutes. • As analgesic, take a cupful every 3 hours. • For tooth aches, pound the fresh leaves, squeeze juice out and apply on a cotton ball then bite on to the aching tooth. • Yerba buena leaves may be heated over fire and placed over the forehead for headaches. 10. Ocimum tenuiflorum About the plant Ocimum tenuiflorum, also known as Holy Basil, tulsi, or tulasi, is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae which is native throughout the Eastern World tropics and widespread as a cultivated plant and an escaped weed.

It is an erect, much branched sub shrub, 30–60 cm tall with hairy stems and simple, opposite, green leaves that are strongly scented. Leaves have petioles, and are ovate, up to 5 cm long, usually slightly toothed. The flowers are purplish in elongate racemes in close whorls. The two main morphotypes cultivated in India and Nepal are green-leaved (Sri or Lakshmi tulsi) and purple-leaved (Krishna tulsi). Medicinal Values Tulsi has been used for thousands of years in Ayurveda for its diverse healing properties. It is mentioned in the Charaka Samhita,an ancient Ayurvedic text.

Tulsi is considered to be an adaptogen, balancing different processes in the body, and helpful for adapting to stress. Marked by its strong aroma and astringent taste, it is regarded in Ayurveda as a kind of “elixir of life” and believed to promote longevity. Tulsi extracts are used in ayurvedic remedies for a variety of ailments. Traditionally, tulsi is taken in many forms: as herbal tea, dried powder, fresh leaf or mixed with ghee. Essential oil extracted from Karpoora tulsi is mostly used for medicinal purposes and in herbal cosmetics, and is widely used in skin preparations. Part IV: Analysis of the Study.

This study was conducted in accordance with the tasks assigned to Students under industrial materials and processes laboratory to research on MEDICINE PLANTS from which our study was conducted on alternative medicine. During our study which was conducted at Dok Alternatibo Corporation we learn a lot on especially on how a certain plant cure different disease, how to effectively use the plant in making it a medicine and lastly the specialist who conducted the process in converting medicine plant to a usable medicine. Even thou limited report time and content, we still manage covered data and learning.

About medicine plants and how use it well to treat you disease. Part V: Recommendation Here are some recommendations that we can give Dok Alternatibo Corporation for their products to be more recognized by the general public: 1. We recommend that the study about herbal medicine should be further studied for better results. 2. We also recommend that producers should observe proper cleanliness in making their products to guarantee consumers regarding hygienic issues. 3. On promoting their products, should also give impact on the safety use of this herbal medicine and give reasonable price to supply the needs of the consumers.

Part VI: Conclusion Alternative medical systems are complete health systems with their own approaches to diagnosis and treatment that differ from the conventional biomedical approach to health. Currently, CAM education is being incorporated into PA and medical curriculums. (3, 4) While remedies are undergoing closer scrutiny in clinical trials, many consumers will continue to use alternative therapies that have not undergone rigorous testing. Therefore, in order to provide the best care possible to their patients, PAs need to be knowledgeable about what treatments, including CAM, their patients are currently using or anticipate using.

Part VII: Realization of the Activity Herbal medicines are very cheap in comparison to the conventional form of medication. It’s something which every pocket can afford, unlike other forms of medication which can create a big hole in your wallet. Herbal medicines can be consumed without the aid of any kind of prescription. They can be found very easily from a local drug store. Herbal medicines are known to be more productive in comparison to other forms of medication in curing certain conditions.

Unless mixed with other chemical components, they are known to be all natural. One of the greatest benefits associated with herbal medicine is the non existence of side effects. Also, they tend to offer long lasting benefits in terms of overall wellness. Part VIII: Glossary 1. Alternative Medicine -A variety of therapeutic or preventive health care practices, such as homeopathy, naturopathy, chiropractic, and herbal medicine, that do not follow generally accepted medical methods and may not have a scientific explanation for their effectiveness. 2.

Herbal Medicine – The study or use of medicinal herbs to prevent and treat diseases and ailments or to promote health and healing. Part IX: Bibliography Internet Sources * http://www. stuartxchange. com/Yerba. jpg * http://www. stuartxchange. com/Tsaang. jpg * http://www. stuartxchange. com/Sambong. jpg *

http://www. stuartxchange. com/NiyogNiyogan. jpg * http://www. altmedicinezone. com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/lagundi. jpg * http://3. bp. blogspot. com/_jpwgP9qlP1Q/S01hhwkkP1I/AAAAAAAAABw/dzoZpyAoA2M/s320/Bayabas. bmp * http://htmlimg1. scribdassets.

com/93j3oklscgil0rs/images/3-e2a5a5b758. png * http://www. philippinesherbalmedicine. com/ * http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Herbalism * http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Alternative_medicine#Herbs. 2C_Diet_and_Vitamins * http://www. scribd. com/doc/19960697/10-approved-herbal-plants-by-DOH * http://dokalternatibo. org/sample-page/ * http://dokalternatibo. org/news-events/dok-alternatibos-attitude-based-management-philosophy-2/ *

http://www. healthguidance. org/entry/12415/1/Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-Herbal-Medicine. html Part X: Attachments Part XI : Pictures of the Working Group.

Part XI: Pictures of the Working Group Part XII: Score Sheets IE 223L WRITTEN REPORT Report Score Sheet Group Name: ______________________________ Group Members: ______________________________________________ Date Submitted: ______________________________ Written Report: Criteria| Points| Actual Score| Quality of the Report (Content, completeness of data, design, grammar, others)| 50| | Presentation of Data| 15| | Creativity, Neatness, others | 10| | Timeliness| 20| | Format/Instruction followed| 5| | Total Score (passing score 60 pts/100)| 100| |