# History considered to be useful as it helps

History of Aero plane:      From the prehistoric times, humans have watched theflights of birds, longed to imitate them, but lack the power to do so.

CAYLEY was a scientist who discovered the basic principleson which modern science of aeronautics is founded.     December 17, WRIGHT brothers had flown a 98 sec onfour flights.Axis:     There are 3 axis which have their own properties:Lateral axis, the longitudinal axis, thevertical axisü Lateral axis: is for noseup and nose downü Longitudinal: is for rollingü Vertical axis: for yawmoment(i.e left and right ) The varies stages offlight:ü  Take offü  Climbingü  Steady flight(constant altitude)ü  Landing On long distance flight most of the part is steady climb. As it is moreEconomical .  Forces acting on Aircraft:v  Liftv  Weightv  Thrust v  Drag      Center of gravity:The point atwhich all the weight are considered to be acting, and it can be change from oneposition to another by changing the amount of weight.Ø Center ofpressure:All theforces created  from the lift are actingat the center of pressure.

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Ø Center of drag:This is thepoint at which all the resistance( drag) forces are acting. How forcesget balanced on Air craft:In realitylift and thrust do not act at the same point ( center of gravity ),thereforeslightly a tail load is considered to be useful as it helps in Nose up and downmovement. In aircraft is said to be in a steady state flight when its altitude,attitude and airspeed are constant and no control inputs are involved. In otherwords we can say that an aircraft is said to be in steady state flight when itflies with the pilot’s hands off.Condition for steady state flight:     Lift must be equal be weight.     Thrust must be equal to Drag.

The position at which these four forces act.  Forcesacting in horizontal flightThrust:below center of gravityDrag:above  center of gravityLift:behind center of gravityForce on tail:behind center of gravity The force on tail needs to be small.