History Of Sport Tourism Tourism Essay

This essay will analyze the awaited impact of athletics touristry on the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. The essay will inquire who and what defines a athletics tourer, in add-on the impact a athletics tourer can hold on Glasgow and Scotland both positively and negatively. The concluding subdivision of the essay will see the overall impact of the games in footings of athletics development and wellness in Scotland.On the 9th of November 2007 the Commonwealth Games Federation announced that Glasgow would host the games in 2014.

Cited from ( Glasgow wins race for 2014 Games, 2007 ) This would alter the landscape of non merely athletics in Scotland but other factors including Tourism. “ It ‘s about doing certain there is a permanent bequest. ” ( Purcell, 2007 ) The quotation mark from Glasgow ‘s City Council Leader, with the games secured work began.This was the apogee of three old ages of difficult work for the metropolis of Glasgow and Scotland. The command would capture the imaginativeness of both the populace and the media ; this was due to importance and bequest that the commonwealth could convey to Scotland through renovation, selling our civilization and merchandises around the universe and besides the addition of tourers. Cited from ( Glasgow Games 2014, 2008 )Tourism is a broad and crossing theorem split into many classs, the international Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defines touristry as “ In footings of peculiar activities, selected by pick and undertaken outside the place environment. Tourism may or may non affect nightlong corsets off from place ” ( Standeven and De Knop, 1999 )To understand touristry there are many factors that are involved and one is specifying a tourer. A tourer can be in general split into two classs Business and recreational i.

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e. on Holiday and are categorised within Domestic or International touristry. Cited from ( Standeven and De Knop, 1999 )An International tourer is “ a visitant who travels to a state other than that in which he/she has his/her usual abode for at least one dark but non more than one twelvemonth, and whose chief intent of visit is other than the exercising of an activity remunerated from within the state visited. ” While a domestic Tourist is “ a visitant residing in a state, who travels to put within the state, but outside his/her usual environment, for at least one dark but no more than six months, and whose intent of the visit is other than the exercising of an activity remunerated from with the topographic point visited.

” ( Ryan, 2003 )To be classified as a tourer either at place or abroad you must pass at least 24 hours off from your place. Business tourers are tourers that travel through work committedness and are inhibited by their employment and a vacation tourer is the contrary were the tourer has the freedom to take where to go and the continuance. Both types of tourers apply to specific signifiers of touristry including Sport. Cited from ( Standeven and De Knop, 1999 )Like touristry itself, Sport Tourism can be considered a broad and crossing theorem split into many classs. Within sport touristry, athletics is given wide term including physical activity facets such as running and walking. While engagement is non cardinal for a athletics tourer as they can be an “ active participant or a inactive witness ” , it is the active facet that is the “ polarizer ” for the touristry. ( Kurtzman, 2005 ) and cited from ( Hinch and Higham, 2004 )The inactive witnesss are associated with concern touristry were cooperate events around athleticss are used to bring forth money for their concern and athletics installations have first-class cooperate services.Were an Active athletics tourer is in general associated with holiday touristry were the tourer seeks a specific athletics to take part in piece on vacation or were a figure of athleticss are on offer in a peculiar resort.

Both sets of tourers add great fiscal benefits to the economic system of the state visited, the following subdivision of the essay will concentrate on these fiscal and economic benefits towards the 2014 Glasgow games both positively and negativelyFor a host metropolis a major event organised right will be economically good, this has non ever been the instance. Previous major events such as the Olympics have had a yesteryear of being a fiscal load on host metropoliss and organizers. In 1976 the Montreal games lost an amazing ?692 million and the metropolis has merely finished off paying the debts. This led to the birth of cooperate games were private investing and sponsorship turned hosting major events into both profitable and feasible.The 2014 games will necessitate an investing of ?288 million 80 % which will paid by the Scots authorities and the Glasgow City Council and the concluding 20 % will be acquired through corporate patrons and investing.

( Knight, 2007 )The investors will be trusting on a successful games both featuring and economically, to seek and see a return on their investing. Through marketing non merely games but Scotland as a whole the investors can gain. The Glasgow concern usher estimates the Games have the possible to hike Scotland ‘s international profile by about 50 % . One manner to market Scotland is through touristry. Cited from ( Purcell )The Glasgow games are held in the East terminal of Glasgow and this portion of the metropolis will travel under monolithic regeneration to be ready for the Games. Not merely top sporting locales are been put in topographic point, an extra 1000 houses are been built around this country pulling more people to populate and work and put and lend to economic regeneration. ( Purcell )The investing into Glasgow will be looked upon positively put increased touristry can hold both a positive and negative consequence on the metropolis and the economic system.

One positive facet will be the addition of concern tourer coming to the Games. Business touristry is deserving about ?1b a twelvemonth to the Scots economic system. Through increased consciousness around the games, Scotland can advance itself as a universe category locale to keep conferences and meetings. As good these tourers can make new concerns in the state or spread out bing 1s due to the experience, there is besides chance to let Scotland to web and develop new chances, which would lend to an economic return on the games.

Cited from ( Glasgow 2014 – Delivering a Lasting Legacy for Scotland, 2008 )Not merely foreign concern tourers will be targeted as local endeavors will be targeted and helped by the commonwealth motion. Under Visit Scotland ‘s bequest for 2014 games working with Scots endeavor, event Scotland and the executive it is stated that local concern can capitalize on the games and will do themselves and Scotland wealthier. “ To develop a mechanism to guarantee that Scots concerns have the greatest possible chance to win contracts to provide merchandises and services related to major events ” and “ this would therefore make a permanent concern and economic bequest for Scotland up to 2014 and beyond. ” ( Glasgow 2014 – Delivering a Lasting Legacy for Scotland, 2008 ) Through this bequest these concern can turn and thrive in a planetary environment by exposing themselves around this major event.Through the addition of tourers coming to the games, Glasgow must be ready to host and house them. An addition in all types of hotels will be needed.

Glasgow all ready have many hotels to provide to anyone ‘s desire but more will be needed to supply suited adjustment. New hotels and updated 1s are planned, including Glasgow ‘s first six star hotel in Argyle Street, the international hotel will be ?125 million and will besides hold flats included every bit good. These hotels can hold a positive impact financially for Glasgow and Scotland during and after the games.This will give the chance to keep more tourers at one clip in the metropolis and have a higher patronage that will pass more money while remaining. During the commonwealth games the hotels can besides be a good base cantonment to let the tourer to travel the games but besides other attractive forces around the metropolis or even around Scotland. ( Argyle Street Hotel Approved, 2007 )A major addition in tourer remaining in hotels will hold positive facets on the Scots economic system it besides could be a negative impact. This is due to the hotel chains non being Scots and the net incomes made by them will travel to the state of beginning instead thanScotland.The addition of hotels and other renovation will take to an addition in occupations, which can be looked upon positively and negatively, from a positive facet.

The current economic clime of the recession is increasing unemployment and any encouragement from either excess staff or new installations using new staff will be critical to the hereafter of Scotland ‘s economic growing. An enterprise of the bequest of 2014 games is to “ cut down economic inaction caused by underemployment of the work force in Glasgow ” ( Glasgow 2014, 2008 ) This will guarantee that the enlisting will be targeted for the local population before and during the commonwealth games, this will let them to be trained in new accomplishments and give the inactive unemployed new found assurance and inspiration to work. Cited from ( Glasgow 2014, 2008 )Scotland is a host during these games and visitants will anticipate a professional welcome, enrolling from the unemployed could be deemed of holding a negative consequence and besides addition of occupations in cordial reception sector could besides hold a negative economic impact.Enrolling the unemployed could be a negative impact due to the Colloquialisms used in the Scots linguistic communication, particularly in Glasgow were it could be said they have their ain linguistic communication of Glaswegian.

Visitors will be anticipating non merely proper English but besides formal etiquette will be used, a hotel such as the Hilton train staff to be five star every bit good as their hotels and the new staff will hold to populate up to these outlooks which could take to occupations intended for the unemployed traveling trained foreign staff, as companies will look for a multi-cultural employee. Cited from ( Careers, 2009 ) This could take to the new occupations being offered and taken by abroad workers. Not merely from E.U states but employees from Africa, Asia and the Americas. This could hold a figure of negative factors, foremost the inactive unemployed will non be able to go fulfilled with new accomplishments and sense of being and contribute to the Scots economic system. The rewards will be traveling to foreign worker who could take the money earned back to their ain state and have small consequence economically while populating in Scotland.Although major events are judged on the economic return there other factors to be considered such as the socio- cultural impacts the 2014 games and the inflow of tourers will hold on both on Glasgow and Scotland.

There will be many societal cultural impacts on both Scotland and the tourer. Sing Scotland and Glasgow, the metropolis will travel under mass regeneration. As stated the east-end of Glasgow will travel under mass regeneration but besides other countries of Glasgow.

This will hold both societal and cultural impacts on these countries, socially with better lodging and substructure could take to a better manner of life. The athlete small town, National Indoor Sports Arena and the velodrome will be situated in Dalmarnock, a creaky portion of Glasgow associated with offense, hapless wellness and unemployment and new lodging will be build in the east-end of Glasgow. Cited from ( 2014 east terminal regeneration game, 2007 ) Harmonizing to the 2014 games legacy the regeneration will be a “ transmutation of the East End of Glasgow, making a sustainable, vivacious new community. ” ( Glasgow 2014, 2008 ) The societal makeup of non merely of Dalmarnock will alter which could be seen both positively and negatively.The positive impacts could be that the regeneration helps undertake the societal jobs around the east-end and which would besides promote tourer to see the country during and beyond the games.

“ Sport bowl and other buildings become tourist attractive forces and convey into by and large urban tourers who non otherwise be at that place. ” ( Standeven and De Knop, 1999 ) The velodrome and the National Indoor Sports Arena could hold tourers and specific athletics tourers being attracted to the east-end to see these edifices or take part after the games, either returning back to the country or sing due to the feedback given from tourers returning to their ain state. A steady reaching of tourer each twelvemonth would promote local concern to turn and spread out and web with other states to convey in merchandises and trade, these tourers could go occupants of Scotland and go employed in the east-end and contribute socially and culturally to the country.Although regeneration will better life and installations of the east-end and Dalmarnock in peculiarly, it could be seen as a negative impact for the people populating in this country presently. The undertaking known the Clyde gateway undertaking is taking ownership of the regeneration and is behind the new lodging, to let the new undertakings to take topographic point the occupants of Dalmarnock will be moved to other parts of the metropolis.

This will hold negative societal consequence on the people as they are being moved from their community and friends and household, for two hebdomads of games. Although most of the feedback from the community has been positive there has been opposite position expressed. Margaret Jaconelli is one is opposed to the games and the renovation populating 32 old ages in Dalmarnock and is the lone individual populating in one of the flats. . “ I want to remain in my ain house every bit long as possible. ” Margaret besides feels a sense of loss, “ It was really a bang-up wee community. ” ( Forrest, 2009 ) The bitterness comes from the feeling that the renovation will non profit the local people as there are being shifted to another community, so a new one can be put in topographic point.

This is represented in the new lodging which merely a few will be council owned and be given back to the old occupants, this could be a signifier of societal cleaning, were the poorer category is moved to do manner to a richer group of people. Cited from ( Lundy, 2003 )This could besides take to a negative consequence for tourers were the host could go resentful towards tourers as it could be deemed they were the cause of the societal alteration. ( Doxey, 1975 p209 Green book ) developed a theoretical account called “ Doxey ‘s Irridex ” to mensurate the relationship between touristry growing and community emphasis. Doxey ‘s theoretical account could be applied to Glasgow and the east-end during and after the game. His first phase of the theoretical account is Euphoria, which Glasgow will experience before and during the Games, welcoming the tourers to remain and bask, the following of Apathy will go on after the games were if tourers return to Glasgow on a regular footing they will be taken for granted and local bossiness will anticipate the same figure of tourers of all time twelvemonth, the 3rd and 4th phases of Annoyance and Antagonism could use to local people who are opposed to the games and the renovation, they could be openly aggressive and unfriendly towards tourers during and after the games. Cited from ( Standeven and De Knop, 1999 )The addition of touristry will hold a societal impact on the east-end and Scotland but besides culturally, Scotland has a proud and alone civilization and it is cardinal that Scotland can demo of their civilization and heritage to the universe during the games. The games legacy plans “ to guarantee that every bit many Scots merchandises and services are used in the Games as possible. ” ( Glasgow 2014, 2008 ) This will give the tourer an thought of the Scots green goods such as nutrient and drink, instead than trying planetary trade names which are widely available and demo the quality of the merchandises and involvement them to put or purchase more.

To expose the humanistic disciplines the Games will work closely with Scots Humanistic disciplines Council to assist “ showcase our festivals, creative persons and originative industries, such as computing machine games and music. ” ( Glasgow 2014, 2008 ) This will assist the Games be a more whole experience for the tourer who can be excited by both the athletics and the civilization at manus. Cited from ( Scots Arts Council )A tourist civilization could every bit good have a negative consequence of Glasgow and Scotland as a whole, as tourer could fight to understand the Scots civilization and anticipate a more commercial viable and a homogenised state.

This could take the Scots civilization being diluted and forgotten, to do manner for the same stores, nutrient, autos, art etc as any other state go forthing it with no individuality or psyche.It could be said homogenisation has already happened in Scotland with major ironss such as Hilton or Starbucks being every major metropolis and each laid out the same. Cited from ( Standeven and De Knop, 1999 )The bequest of the 2014 games will look to do Scotland greener, but a rush of tourers can do both positive and negative environmental impacts.

The Games locales such as the jock ‘s small town will be eco-friendly with criterions set to cut down C emanations and waste. The locales are set around the Clyde which is the river that runs through Glasgow, the organizers have seen the seen the river as an chance to let commuters and tourers to travel around the metropolis with more easy. One undertaking is to allow the Clyde to hold a high velocity ferry service, from the Centre of Glasgow to Dunoon and so to Greenock. Another service which has been run since 2007 is Britain ‘s first hydroplane airlineA which a service from the Centre of Glasgow to Oban.

Cited from ( Clydefast Ferries, 2008 )These services can be seen both positively and negatively impacting the environment of the Clyde ; the services will let more tourers to come in Glasgow day-to-day and remain out with the metropolis come ining merely when they choose, this can a positive consequence on the environment as tourer are utilizing greener and alternate signifiers of conveyance instead the auto. ( Glasgow 2014, 2008 )A negative impact will be the impact the services will hold on the Clyde itself, the Clyde every bit already as a fluctuation of H2O athleticss preformed on it, including rowing and seafaring. An addition in touristry and athletics tourers could spread out these athleticss which will hold a permanent consequence of the Clyde. “ All signifiers of H2O athleticss can hold a harmful influence ” ( Standeven and De Knop, 1999 ) these can include bank flora being damaged, fish and birds being troubled, besides local occupants could hold divergency with the addition of athleticss and the new services due to noise pollution.Conveyance is major issue in environmental impacts of a tourer and during the Games there will be an addition in activity that will impact the environment. New conveyance links are being built for 2014, including the completion of the M74 which will fall in to the M8 expressway West of the Kingston Bridge. A Positive impact of the new route will be “ opening up chances, cut downing congestion and investment in easing the commute. ” ( M74 Completion, 2008 ) Opportunities include a development of Scotland ‘s economic system by bettering conveyance links and making new occupations.

The route is will besides assist the touristry as it will give greater entree to the E of Glasgow were the Games are been held and encourage people to see this country. Cited from ( M74 Completion, 2008 )Negative impacts of this route will be the possible environmental harm caused to local occupants, in 2003 Green and Socialist MSPs united to oppose programs to finish the M74 expressway. They argued that the route would to cut down traffic and could increase it, wellness impacts of pollution on kids and grownups and the money spent did non warrant the cause. “ In Glasgow peculiarly, where about 60 % of families do n’t hold entree to a auto, it is an lewdness that half a billion is traveling to be spent on a piece of expressway five stat mis long – that ‘s ?100m a stat mi, ” ( Parties unite to contend M74 programs, 2003 )The tourer will do a important impact on Glasgow during and after the games and besides the bequest of the games can help the people of Glasgow and Scotland to go healthier and present them to feature, the Games will let Scotland to better their athletics development and aid achieve ends set by the authorities and the Sportscotland.Sportscotland is the national bureau for athletics in Scotland, and their mission is to “ promote everyone in Scotland to detect and develop their ain sporting experience, assisting to increase engagement and better public presentations in Scots athletics. ”( We are the national bureau for athletics in Scotland.

A 2009 )To accomplish this Sportscotland issued a national scheme for athletics, Reaching Higher ; the two results of Reaching Higher are increasing engagement in athletics and bettering public presentation. Through the bequest of the Games Sportscotland can assist to accomplish these two national results, an addition in athletics substructure throughout Scotland by networking and prosecuting with national regulating organic structures, local governments and Sportscotland will let governments to welcome an increased involvement in athleticss engagement. An addition under-represented groups take parting in athleticss, the games will promote new groups into athletics and installations will give them opportunity to take portion.New athletics development programmes to give immature participants the best tract to success will assist Sportscotland to increase engagement. Cited from ( Glasgow 2014, 2008 )To better Scots public presentation on a universe phase, the Games can assist detect a clear tract from grass-roots to elite public presentation in successful athleticss, which will steer immature jocks through each phase and give the right preparation needed.

Expanding the Scottish Institute of Sport were the top Scottish jocks are trained, will let more to be trained and hence an addition in more jocks. The can assist to increase decorations and overall public presentation of Scots jocks at major events, investing into athletics will give better preparation installations, managers and equipment. Cited from ( Glasgow 2014, 2008 )The Games will assist Sportscotland ‘s to accomplish the results, the Games can besides revolutionize Scots heath, Scotland has one of the worst records of wellness in Europe with the highest figure bosom jobs and shots and has the shortest life anticipation. Cited from ( Bridgland, 2000 ) and ( Scotland is ‘worst little state ‘ , 2007 )In 2003 the Physical activity scheme was launched “ Let ‘s Make Scotland More Active ” , with their cardinal end of the scheme is 50 % of all grownups aged over 16 to accomplish 30 proceedingss of physical activity each twenty-four hours and 80 % of all kids aged 16 to be accomplishing over an hr of physical activity each twenty-four hours by 2022.

Cited from ( Physical activity scheme, 2003 )Physical activity can except athleticss and can include running or walking and the Games can be a vehicle to animate people to be more physically active. Through right selling and information on how people can go more active. The Games will hold bequest on the kids, fleshiness among kids is a turning wellness concern in Scotland, the games will give bravery to kids to seek athletics and be physically active, besides runing for a healthier lifestyle including nutrient, intoxicant and drug advice. Cited from ( Glasgow 2014, 2008 )To reason the essay said it would analyze the awaited impact of athletics touristry on the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. The essay has answered this inquiry by saying a figure of possible impacts a tourer can convey to Glasgow and the impact the Games will hold on Glasgow. The subdivisions of the essay asked who and what a tourer and athletics tourer are and a brief on the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. This subdivision was answered to the full giving a figure of academic mentions to specify a tourer, the chief subdivision of the essay was to see the overall impact both positively and negatively of the Games in footings of economically, socio-culturally and environmentally. Using both academic text and physical beginnings the essay was able to give legion illustrations in each subdivision.

The concluding subdivision would see the overall impact of the games in footings of athletics development and wellness in Scotland, utilizing national schemes this subdivision could be answered wholly.