History of the Conflict in SomaliaSomalia is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Somalia is a nation situated in the horn of Africa, it has borders with Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian ocean the east, and the Republic of Kenya to the northwest,Somalia became independent from both Britain and Italy in the 1960s, just a few days from independence, the two newly got independent Somali regions of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland united and formed the Somali Republic, after a nearly one decade of civil administration, and self-governing period (1960-1969), self-rule and newly established state institutions failed to cover publics’ expectations. There were a huge poverty and unemployment which led to the weakening of peoples wishes from the new state.Additionally, mass corruption, favoritism and nepotism treatment has been characterized in state institutions and Finally Paved the way a coup d’etat led by General Mohamed Siad Barre which overthrew the democratically elected government of Somalia and remained in power since 1991.From the beginning of the new state most of the Somali people in particular of those from the north were proudly thinking to unite the entire Somali spoken territories including the French Somaliland which later on became the Republic of Djibouti, , the Ogaden region in Ethiopia, Somaliland and the North-Eastern region of Kenya to create a greater Somali nation,The New State which was formed by the north and the south of independent Somali territories, unluckily failed to perform any progress on the issue of the greater Somalia, there was a growing aspiration for Somali people subjecting to the desire of liberation and unification of the Somali territories which some of them was under other states rule, these aspirations finally led the nation to encounter commenced a bloody war between the Somali Republic and Ethiopia in 1977.Soon after the war, in an escalating political crisis, the commander of the army, Mohamed Siad Barre has a clear understanding to which side of the cold war he would align with the nation.
Marx, Lenin and Siad have soon appeared on the same way in the cold war.President barre imposed a harsh Marxism dictatorship rule, considering the supremacy of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party and the nation, the local clan leaders which are very strong features in Somali culture were opposed to being a loyal to the issue, Finally, Somali clans destroyed barre’s dictatorship rule in their hands,The Somali people have suffered from long-standing oppression and violence at the hands of their fellow Somalis. Somali regardless of being the most homogeneous region in Africa has witnessed a civil war for over Two decades and this work seeks to ascertain the course of this, they have lived in thorny and harsh conditions under both democratic and martial regimes. In the aftermath of this disaster guerrilla groups, clan-based and regional, are formed in and around Somalia with the intention of collapsing Siad’s authoritarian and centralizing system.
By 1988 the result is full-scale civil war, resulting in the overthrow of Siad in 1991. He withdraws to the safety of his own clan, becoming one warlord among many in this increasingly chaotic nation. On the onset of the military regime, the situation was observed to become worse. Siad Bare’ government and armed factions used haphazard killing, burning of villages and torture as instruments of control. The conflict caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Somalis and many affected civilians were either internally or externally displaced.
In 1991 after nearly years of guerrilla war in the north between the Somali army and SNM, Somaliland independence declared by the people of north or former British Somaliland. Somaliland since its re-independence gradually becomes a fully democratic and peaceful state with growing development in terms of politics, economics, education, state building and other aspects, although it is not yet recognized by the international community, Somaliland exists as defacto state and on November 13, this year the unrecognized nation elected its fifth president.