How report experiment, the observer is required to

  How much information can we seen in a brief visual presentation?  A simple question: What did you see?’
requires the observer to report both what he remembers and what he has
forgotten” (p. 1). People tend to said that they can seen more that
they could remembered . Sperling(1960)
demonstrated that when people been presented with a large amount of
information, they could only report about few. The limit of the memory that can
report from a maximum amount of information is know as the span of
apprehension. In this study, the focus will be on how difference types of
report condition influenced the numbers of item observer can report.

An array of letter was presented to the observer in a very brief time. In
a whole report experiment, the observer is required to report as many letter as
he could. The observer generally could not report the letter correctly and the
number of letter that can be report is limited. In a partial report experiment
, the observer is required to report only one row of the letter but he didn’t
know which row he required to report at first that’s mean the cue is randomly.
An instruction tone is given to indicate which row to be report. A high tone is
paired with upper row and a low tone is paired with the lower row. The observer
need to hear the tone and decide which row to report. In result, the numbers of
letter that the observer could report is improved. In addition, Sperling also
manipulated the
interval separating stimulus offset and presentation of the cue. The results
show that as the cue interval increased, the number of letter that observer
could report diminished.

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  In conclusion , observer tend to perform better
in partial- report condition than in whole-report condition .In the same
material, the accuracy in partial-report is higher than whole-report.This is
because while in whole-report condition, 
only limited number item can be report due to the span of apprehension.
Also , iconic memory fades with time so that as the time interval of the cue
increased, the number of item that the observer could report decreased.

  Sperling manipulated seven experiments to
demonstrate his research and made a lot of conclusion based on his study. But
these experiment might not be the perfect one because there might have some
inaccuracy in doing every experiment for example: mishearing the tone.In
addition , INGE FRYKLUND
had done a study on the Effects of cued-set spatial arrangement and
target-background similarity in the partial-report paradigm. In my opinion, although
there is three memory store in our brain and a lot of research based on memory
,but there is still a lot of knowledge about memory has not been exacavate.