This report will review the deferent ways of telling If someone Is lying without the verbal need of asking, It Is generally hard to know If someone Is lying unless the truth is already known of or they have told you it is a lie, this will concentrate by observing the person throughout conversation.
After reviewing the theories a hypothesis will be created and carried out in investigations to determine whether it is right or not; Hypothesis: a subject’s reaction to a question is linked to them lying in their answer Null hypothesis: the subject’s reaction to a question will have no effect on the answer What Is lying? Lying Is an action when people try and mislead you, they answer with something that they have made up, this may be done In order to hide something they have done or to prevent them from embarrassment, some people lie to fit in or to prevent awkwardness in society.
The two most commonly told lies in the English language are, ‘it wasn’t me’ or I’m fine’ these two lies show that people either don’t want people to know what they have done and/ or they are hiding something, or that they are ashamed/embarrassed of their emotions, another reason Is that they feel uncomfortable about expressing emotions therefore find It easier to Lie about them. Eye patterns ; this is classed as a big giveaway on whether someone Is lying or not, most people use this diagram to define if someone whom is right handed is lying, they say that the image is reversed for those whom are left handed.
This is because the whole brain is the opposite way round. This means that (not every time as there are some exceptions) if you ask someone a question and they look subconsciously to the right this Is the Visual/adulatory constructed’ section this means they are creating meeting that Is not real therefore they are lying whereas If they subconsciously look to the left this Is the Visual,’auditory remembrance’ section this means that they are recalling something that has already happened therefore telling the truth , these will be the opposite way round for someone who is left handed.
This is backed up by sources [ ] as they also state that when being asked a question and looking to their right this is showing they are accessing the right hemisphere of the brain which is the creation department as well as the visual cortex for pictures, this means they are instruction an Image or an answer, if they were recalling a picture they would look up and to their left. They also say that when you raise your eyebrows to the centre of your forehead it is a sign of fear this is most likely to happen after telling a lie as they fear being caught out.
Speech: there are 7 mall points In telling If someone Is lying by their way of wording things or how they speak; When being accused of lying an Innocent person will reply with an answer such as Why would I do such a thing’ whereas someone who is guilty will simply say ‘no’ thus showing that they are calm and not trying to defend their ride another difference in their answers will be when answering a question a liar will repeat the question in their answer, e. G. Question, did you eat the last biscuit? A liar’s answer would be “no I did not eat the last biscuit” where as someone who Is themselves of what they are saying. Sometimes when liars answer questions they use full words such as ‘did not’ Instead of didn’t, this is to empathic their answer others will imply answers or ask rhetorical questions instead of answering or denying the accusation e. G. Question; did you steal the biscuit? Answer; “would I really do that?
Someone who is guilty doesn’t feel comfortable in awkward silences or pauses between conversations, because of this they talk more than normal in the hope of filling the silences, when they are filling in the silences they will talk about unnecessary information that they believe will make you believe them, some lairs use humor or sarcasm to try and avoid questions or subjects they don’t like or to fill the awkward silences or they talk really quickly to get the lie over and done with and the conversation to an end.
This is backed up by source as they say that to establish f someone is lying by their cadence of speech you must first have a base ling conversation to determine their basic speech habits, look out for the way they speak, their flow of words and the way the sentences are said.
The go from having a simple conversation then get onto the subject of interrogation, listen for changes in their speech pattern, a long pause before answering is the most common to suggest someone is lying as they are thinking of what to say, listen to the flow of their speech, if the tempo changes, an awkward or pausing speaker is most likely lying. If the beaker attempts to change the subject or avoids the subject directly it shows they are uncomfortable with that subject.
Body language; When someone is lying they may show certain signs with their body language, if they are showing one of these signs it may Just be a habit but if they are showing 3-4 of these signs then they are most likely to be lying these signs are; The lairs physical movements will be generally limited and stiff and they will have limited arm and hand movement, Their hands will most likely touch their face or mouth, they may also scratch behind their ear or touch heir nose, although Some people put their palms facing down as they subconsciously feel vulnerable when their palms are up.
In some cases when lying people avoid eye contact but this may be due to other reasons so for this sign you need to know their usual eye behavior when talking or will look own to avoid showing emotions.
Sometimes their subconscious mind takes over so that when answering questions they place objects between them and whom is questioning them, this reassures them that they have something to hide behind, another thing that the subconscious mind does is that it will sometimes make the head shake in a ay that means no as the liar is answering with the answer yes, some peoples lips begin to turn down when they have told a lie, the muscles that are in control of this are involuntary and can’t be controlled consciously..
A big sign is that when people get nervous their mouths become dry as the saliva glands cease to produce saliva, so when lying people lick their lips either because they are uncomfortable with the answer they gave or they are nervous with the subject. This is backed up by source when the person in answering the question look for when they are nodding and hen they are shaking their head, if they are doing the opposite of what their answer is, their subconscious is trying to express itself.
They also say that naturally we mirror the behavior of those whom we are talking to, when lying the mirroring usually stops as the liar is trying to create something for the listener to believe. An example therefore they will lean towards the listener here as a liar will lean back in a way of showing they don’t want to be involved in the conversation, leaning away also shows dislike or lack of interest.
By watching a person’s throat you will see that when they IEEE they will constantly swallow to try and lubricate their throat because when you are nervous or lying your throat dries out, they may also gulp or clear their throat to relieve any built up tension, their breathing may also change, people tend to breath faster when they are lying by taking lots of short breaths then one big one.
Sweating is something to look for, when people lie they tend to sweat more naturally, this can also be because of shyness, nervousness or a medical condition, this sign must be taken into count when people are trembling, blushing or have difficulty when swallowing, not on its own. Emotional gestures ;People generally tend to fake emotions to please others, like when opening a gift they do not like, smiling Just to keep the other person happy, but if you analyses their smile you will be able to see that they are faking the smile, this is because a natural smile uses more muscles than a fake smile.
The reason people fake emotions would be to fit in, hid feelings or insecurities. Here are some ways of knowing when people are faking their emotions; The timing of the emotional gestures are off, the emotion will seem delayed and will stay for longer than it should it will then stop abruptly, or they will only use their out when they are showing the emotion instead of using their whole face.
Sometimes the emotional gesture doesn’t match what they are saying for example smiling when saying that’s so sad’ they should be sympathetic not smiling or trying to hide anger the person will show the emotion for a split second, these are ‘micro expressions’ people can have micro expressions* for every emotion but the most common is anger.
This is backed up by sources [ ] they state that there are 7 universal micro expressions that everyone will show these are; *Micro Expressions; What are ‘micro expressions’, (From Wisped, the free encyclopedia) ‘A micro expression is a brief, involuntary facial expression shown on the face of humans according to emotions experienced.
They usually occur in high-stakes situations, where people have something to lose or gain’ Plan To test this hypothesis several people will be questioned their ages will range from 11-18, this is in order to get reliable results from a wide range of people, some yes and no questions will be asked then some questions that will require some thought behind them. By doing this it will show if their reaction towards the question is linked to their answer.
Looking for fidgeting, twitching, looking away and other things, to now if they are lying also taking in account their eye movement as an extra account to back up my findings. The reason eye contact is used is to back up findings because throughout all the findings it is recommended when deciding if someone is medical issue or an ethical command. An example of a yes or no question asked is; ‘Did you have dinner last night?
An example of an open question asked is; ‘Do you ever think about things that you are embarrassed about therefore don’t want anyone to know? Analysis of results from lie detection questionnaire: questions 1-5 are all base questions so that there is familiarity with the natural sections of the participant when being asked questions, therefore analyzing from questions 6-10 as these questions are ones that have been wrote up to cause a recordable reaction.
Subject 1; Subject one was a female of the age of 16, she is ambidextrous, therefore any eye movements to the left or right have not been recorded due to the misconception of their meaning, when asked to tell something they regret or are not proud of she began to fidget and look down, she then cracked her knuckles before answering the question this is normally a comforting habit to keep them from falling into an awkward position.
When asked about something she does not want anyone to know about she began to fidget and look down this shows that she feels uncomfortable with the question or the answer, when she looked down she showed that she didn’t want her face to be seen and that she felt embarrassed. When asked if she would repeat a secret and who too she began to frown and touch her face this shows that 1 she is confused or unimpressed with the question, 2 she is trying to hide her face or certain facial features that may give away any emotions or possibly hide that she has already told someone something she shouldn’t have.
When asked the most embarrassing thing to happen to her she began to giggle, this could be either nervous giggling or giggling at herself to show that she isn’t actually embarrassed about it. When asked how she felt after being questioned she said she was confused this may be due to the numerous amounts of personal questions asked. Subject 2; Subject two was a female of the age of 12, she was right handed therefore eye movements have been recorded, when asked something she was not proud of she began to play with objects in within the room this shows a way of trying to avoid the question by changing the subject of focus.
When asked to recall a secret or something she doesn’t want anyone to know about she began to stall answering the question by ‘mom’ to then refuse to answer the question, this may be because of the content of the answer or that she was embarrassed about the answer. When asked if and who she would repeat a secret to she immediately said no one with no hesitation or even a thought about what she had been asked, this shows she is loyal and faithful towards her friends.
When asked what the most embarrassing thing to happen to her she began to giggle at herself to then say she wasn’t embarrassed bout anything, but because she giggled before answering it showed that she was embarrassed at something but didn’t want to speak of the incident. When asked how she felt she said she felt awkward, this is because she was being asked personal and intruding questions by a complete stranger, she was also unaware of why she was being asked these questions and what the purpose of them was. Subject 3; Subject three was a male the age of 11 he was left handed this means any eye movements have been recorded and flipped round.
When asked to say something he was not proud of or that he regrets he began to look in the direction of remembrance Egan giggling at himself this may be a way of hiding or denying the secret. When asked when asked who he would tell a secret to he was quick to answer with no, it wasn’t a confident answer it was a sharp answer this shows that potentially he has already told someone something that he shouldn’t have therefore when asked the question the situation instantly came into his head and in defense he answered quickly and sharply.
When asked to repeat the most embarrassing thing to happen to him he refused to answer the question, even after compromise and negation he still fused this may because of the degree of embarrassment, who was involved or the back lash of the actions. When asked how he was feeling after being question he said he was confused about why he had been chosen and why he was asked the questions he was asked. Subject 4; Subject four was 13 year old female, she is left handed therefore any eye movements have been flipped round when analyses.
This is the first subject that has had the reactions of question 4 and 5 written down this is because she is the only subject to show an obvious reaction to the questions. When asked what her religion was she Egan to fidget in her seat showing that she is uncomfortable she then began cracking her knuckles to relive tension and moving and pursing her lips, this can all show that she is either hiding or lying about something, this or she is afraid of something deeper that may have happened or something she has seen something to make her afraid.
When asked how religious she was she began to play with the objects in the surrounding area, this could show that she has disobeyed her religion or that she knows of someone who has and is covering for something. When asked to tell me something she regrets or is not proud of she began to fidget and play with hinge around her again this shows that she is uncomfortable and is trying to distract herself as well as me subconsciously away from the question in hand.
When asked to recall a secret of hers that no one knows she was confident when answering this shows that the answer was a lie as she quickly answered, due to not knowing who is questioning her and only knowing this person less that 10 minutes it would be understandable to take a while to think of an answer in her mind acceptable to tell a stranger and by answering quickly and confidently shows she is putting up a front ND trying to the question over and done and ‘off her back and away from what she could really be hiding.
When asked whom she would repeat someone’s secret to she started to fidget and twitch, this shows that she is trying to hid something, the main possibility is that she has already told someone a secret that she shouldn’t have and is trying to hide that it was her. When asked the most embarrassing thing to her she started to giggle nervously at herself this means that’s she is in a way ‘comfortable’ with the incident as she has learnt to laugh at herself and doesn’t mind people knowing.
When asked how she felt she also said she was confused about why she was being asking such personal questions by someone she had never met before. Subject 5; Subject five was a 12 year old boy who was right handed. This subject had a very introverted personality; he was very quiet with the questions he did answer. When asked what his religion was he looked away when answering. This may show a form of embarrassment or being ashamed of it, he then refused to answer when I asked answer but doesn’t want to.
When asked to recall something he isn’t proud of he refused to look at me even when told he must remain eye contact he then refused to answer the question this shows the possibility that he is ashamed of something or that he has been pressured into believing things he has done are wrong and shameful. He also refused to answer questions 7, 8 and 9, this shows that he doesn’t like sharing any of his personal feelings or thoughts with anybody even when told all answers are confidential and won’t go further.
Subject 6; Subject six was a 19 year old male who is ambidextrous. This subject is the only subject who wasn’t a stranger to the person questioning him this gave a baseline level of trust between them this affected his answers they were confident and answered with the only hesitation was when asked something he was not proud of he began to fidget with his trousers and shoes, this shows that he had something to hide as he was fidgeting with something at a different eye level therefore hiding his face and emotions.
Subject 7; Subject seven was a 17 year old male who was left handed. When asked something that he was not proud of he was confident when answering this shows that he was not truthful with his answer as someone who is not proud of something would show signs of being ashamed of themselves not confident in telling people. When asked to recall a secret of his he hesitated before answering the question this shows that he doesn’t want to tell me anything and that he has hesitated because he changed the story he was going to tell.
In a brewery it is important that communication is always an on-going process between colleagues in and out of the brewery. Not only is it important for health and safety but it is also important for senior members of the team to be able to read the body language of the team members to ensure that everything is k and that their wellbeing is in check. Without communication in a rewire it would be chaotic nothing would run smoothly and no-one would know what to do, not only this but there would be major injuries and no business expansion.
Communication is key in any business but especially a brewery, breweries make things that will be consumed all over the world every day and without the correct communication in a brewery it can cause serious harm to its customers as well as its employees if something goes wrong in a brewery and no one is informed there may be no way of stopping the problem expanding whereas with a bit of communication the problem can easily be solved without a huge plant meltdown.