In the last 3 decades,the number of people overweight in the United States has increaseddramatically. The worldwide increase in Obesity has significantly stirredresearch on its causes. Three theories have prevailed the deliberation ofscientists on how body regulation might take place- Homeostasis, Set Point Theory,and Settling Point Theory. The idea of homeostasis has been generally the mainmotivational concept discoursed in understanding human behavioural regulation.Homeostasis proposes that for any internal state that needs to be regulated -hunger,thirst, body weight regulation, temperature etc. and there is a set-point – a goal level or optimumpoint which must remain stable (Brace, 2015). This is the samewith the Set Point Theory that proposes that there is an active feedbackmechanism relating adipose tissue or stored energy to consumption andexpenditure via a ‘set point’, seemingly programmed in the brain. Homeostasisand Set Point Theory both contends that a person’s metabolism corrects itselfto sustain and maintain a weight at which it is appropriate and comfortable.
Classically,the homeostatic regulation ideas have been conversed using the metaphor of athermostat regulating temperature. For example, the set point is the internaltemperature vital to remain stable, should there be an error sensed, unwarranteddeviation from the set point, the error fixing mechanisms will regulate thetemperature up or down depending on which direction the error was in away fromthe desired set point (Brace, 2015). The two theories, homeostasis and set point theory, are coherentwith several of the biotic facets of energy balance, but strives to enlighten thevarious substantial environmental and societal impacts on obesity, food consumptionand physical activities.
Formation of the set point negates a part for the interactionof social and economic factors and environmental factors in the etiology ofobesity, incorporating the whole thing into the physiology, which appears doubtful;these drove the formulation and development of a theory called Settling PointTheory. Scientists proposed that weight regulation might not be through apre-determined set point, but through a settling point – equilibrium betweenopposing pressures (Berthoud, 2004) Settling Point Theory is built on the concept that thereis inert feedback amongst variety of environmental factors, mass of the bodystores and prospect of expenditure. This notion of a passive adjusting systemthat doesn’t incorporate some set point is labelled a settling point system: thesystem ‘settles’ at a mark established by the level of the uncontrolled factor,either inflow or outflow. This theory integrates several of the social andenvironmental features of energy balance, but struggles to explicate a few ofthe genetic and biological elements. Our continuous entree to foods great in fat,salt, and sugar is surging up our bodies’ settling point, the homeostatic pointwhich our body considers as our right and appropriate weight.
Then as soon asthe settling point has been attuned uphill, it is so tough to retune it to alower weight. According to the Settling Point Theory, that is lone grounds why ourweight as a populace is cumulatively rising even as our fascination with dietsalso rises (Castro, 2011).