In they represent thousands of slum dwellers hence

In this alliance SPARC acts as a supporting character to the
other two. Their aim is to empower the poor so that the poor could develop for
themselves. SPARC handles all the formal talks with the state, local authorities
and donors and also prepares documentation. The relationship between SPARC and
the NSDFmahila Milan is bases on “the understanding that, as the urban poor themselves
gain skills and confidence in dealing with public institutions, they will take
over the work previously done by SPARC”  as
said by the author.    

NSDF comprises of slum dwellers from different cities. There are
many federations of slum dwellers in Mumbai and they represent thousands of
slum dwellers hence their number is one of the reason why NSDF is so important
and is “taken seriously” as said by the author. These federations comprise only
of slum dwellers and are unregistered. Mahila milan is another organization which
wokrs for slums and issue of better housing conditions.

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Since the mid 80’s, the 3 organization i.e. the Indian NGO. SPARC
(society for the promotion of area resource centers) and two people’s organizations,
the NSDF and Mahila Milan, have worked together to strengthen and demonstrate
the abilities of urban poor to organize themselves and improve their housing and
other basic utilities and services. The federating of the slum communities happened
because of the fact that work in lesser number of slums wouldn’t be taken seriously
by the government and it provides a larger community to come together to covey
their common problem together.

The alliance’s engagement with slum upgrading


The funding of 1
million houses which the new government promised was irrational. However, the
slum rehabilitation committee devised a way around it. This happened by
granting additional FSI. The houses for the poor have to be built within housing
schemes which was profitable to the developer. He has to cover the cost of
these apartments in addition to the cost of slum dwellers. the current FSI was
1.33 for Dharavi as I t is inside the city. Now any sanctioned FSI above 2.5
could be taken as a transfer of development rights(TDR). TDR could be used for
actual construction or could be sold in free market. But the construction was restricted
to the northern part of the city since the southern area is already congested.

2.       The
mechanism for financing slum redevelopment

The developer
who has the responsibility of rehabilitation has to fund Rs.20000 to the central
fund which would help to cover monthly expenses and municipal taxes. The developer
has to profit enough so as to cover the costs of providing free apartments. Floor
space for commercial areas and restaurants were also given. The main strategy is
the in-situ slum redevelopment. Construction of over a million new apartments
would strain the existing infrastructure system hence the developer was also
expected to pay Rs.840 per sq. Foot for expansion of infrastructure.

Railways, airports
authority were encouraged to permit redevelopment on their land which wasn’t under
operation. The land-owning agency would be compensated either by agreeing to a
price or receiving alternate buildable area through transfer of development
rights. A single coordinating authority was setup for slum rehabilitation
working with private developers, public bodies, NGOs and societies of slum
dwellers which would be headed by a minister and as a senior bureaucrat as a
chief executive.

Benefits would be given to private land owners
if they participated.

The locations where upgradation was not possible
they had the right to resettled at a new location.

Pavement dweller would have the same rights as
slum dwellers in context to rehabilitation.

Redevelopment of slums should be done in situ,
which was possible in most of the cases. The public amenities were to be moved
if their land was under the slum boundary.

The new Maharashtrian
government in 1995 promised to provide free housing to 4 million slum dwellers in
Mumbai. A special committee’s assessment concluded that majority of the slum dwellers
resided on the land which was under various central and state agencies. The need
of basic amenities and public spaces was recognized as provided in the development
plan of the city. There were few recommendations like:

1.       The
new institutional framework

The institutional and legal
framework for slum upgrading in Mumbai

The cost of resettlement would not
be bearded by local authorities instead it would be funded by the state government
and the railways. This time the government identified the project affected on
the basis of social and economic networks and ignoring the land required for the
project. If there was a hitch in the social or economic network of a person
then he would be entitled to resettlement. Strong community participation led
to led to the resettlement of about 20000 families. All this resulted in the amendment
of the Slum Areas Act in 2001. Those slum dwellers who had their names on the
electoral roll on 1 January 1995 would be protected and their houses couldn’t
be demolished without rehabilitation.

Retaining the networks existing in the community
in the resettlement area. Integration of the host and the new residents.

Details of the resettlement program through
active community participation

Minimizing the resettlement of slum populations
after looking at all options, and implementing it in such a way that displaced
person would receive the compensation before the actual move. Full assistance at
the time of moving. special attention towards living standards, income earning

The policy objectives were:

A task force of Maharashtrian government with the help
of government agencies as well as NGOs and public organizations was formed to
formulate the basis of Mumbai urban transport resettlement and rehabilitation

The world bank decides that without resettlement and
rehabilitation no project site could be cleared. Many thousands of people have
had to be moved away from alongside railway tracks as they were restricting the
speeds of the railway, hence this policy would affect the Mumbai urban
transport project.

in the resettlement polices of the world bank and the government of Maharashtra


The municipal commissioner along with his
team would approve each project but the program didn’t take off well.

In the early 90’s the state government came
up with new slum redevelopment scheme. It stated that those who would redevelop
the slums would be given extra building space as an incentive. The extra
building space could be used to cross subsidize the accommodation for slum

The second program was low income group
shelter program. Affordable housing for the poor through cross subsidizing from
the profits of plots sold to upper income groups. The program was
self-financing. The EWS and LIG would be able to build their own houses
according to the standard design. More than 80000 low income families benefited
from the program. Loans were given to construct houses which could be repaid
over 20 years.

In the 80’s there were 2 programmes in the
world Bank funded Bombay urban Development project. The first one is slum
upgrading program, consisted of renewable land leases to slum cooperative
societies for up to 30 years with civic amenities on a cost recovery basis and
loans to support upgrading of houses. The changes were insignificant. High
densities limited the scope for reconfiguration and improvement. Implementation
of this program was done only on state government agencies.

In the 70’s for various moral reasons and
practicality slums began to be viewed as “housing solutions” as referred by the
author. Policies for upgradation and need for resettlement was acknowledged. A
census of slums on public land was conducted in 1976 and unique identification
cards called “photopasses” by the author were issued to the residents if they
were found eligible. The basic infrastructure like swage and water was provided
by the engineering departments of various public agencies to those who had
ID’s. But the central government agencies didn’t allow this upgradation on
their land.

Whereas in urban areas there is no law to
safeguard the rights of those who are displaced by public projects in urban
areas. The policy however evolved through public pressure. The best-case
scenario is that those who were displaced were to be offered small plots in the
suburbs away from the city, usually where even the basic facilities and
infrastructure was also not provided. Municipal officers in a way decided the
future of those who have been displaced as there was no local representation
from those communities and were forcibly removed. Majority of the residents
returned to their old locations through kinship ties.

servants etc. was ignored. The author then
draws a contrast between urban and rural resettlement policies. In rural areas
the new land is provided within the radius of new irrigation projects and with
site with being provided with basic amenities, housing plots, loans, subsidies
and reserved jobs in government services. Also, a provision for compulsory
representation of project affected communities.

nuisance. Their
contribution to the economy as industrial workers, construction labor, domestic

protect their land. Most
of the “educated” civilians and professionals considered slums to be a

similar conditions on
another location. The central and state agencies were under equipped to

either settle to the same
location after some time or move to another location only to create

occupied by the urban
poor. It was already that this policy wouldn’t work because people would

government of Maharashtra
and BMC decided to demolish slums and clear the land which was

slums which lacks basic
utilities like water, sanitation and electricity. In the early 60’s the

Despite being the
commercial capital of the country, Mumbai’s majority population resides in

3.        Evolution of slum Policy in Mumbai


In few cases some agencies like Airport Authority of
India and Indian navy are bearing the costs of slum upgradation or resettlement
only to settle with state or central government for the land they require for
more efficient functioning, for various reasons.

development policy which is still under discussion and
hasn’t been finalized yet. It talks about the features such as granting the
land tenure to the slum dwellers wherever feasible and also where this is not
possible resettlement should be looked at as an alternative. Other central
government agencies don’t agree to this, which house many informal settlements
on their land such as railways,
defence etc. these agencies are also against providing any basic
amenities on their land to the dwellers. Also, it is politically incorrect for
the state government even for the central government to demolish the homes of
so many people living on their land.

Central ministry of urban development and poverty
alleviation has drafted a national slum

National sum policy


More than three fourth of India’s population lived in
villages at the time of independence. Rural poverty and famine in early 1960’s
led to the focus of planners on the same. Hence urban problems were neglected.
Now the priorities have changed. Investing in urban development and housing for
urban poor and resulted as an invitation to fresh migration.

Centre still is the largest single owner of urban land
in India.

The author firstly talks about the jurisdiction under
whom slum upgrading lies. He discusses that the with regards to slums and urban
development, central government doesn’t have much say. The state government is
the main power that is responsible for slum upgrading and its up to the state
government how they tackle this problem, what laws, policies and schemes they
form for slum upgrading, except with regard to land owned by central government
agencies. Hence the author explains that the central government could not
really influence the urban development or slum upgradation due to the power
vested in the state government by the constitution of India.

Centre and the States

Background of Slum Upgrading