Introduction: and achieving customer satisfaction are the practices


article which we have chosen is “Does the soft aspects of TQM influence job
satisfaction and commitment? An empirical analysis”. Purpose of our research is
to analyze each soft aspect of TQM. Moreover, we also gave a comparison between
soft and hard aspects of TQM. In this regard, we also took help from past
studies and previous surveys.

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can improve their performance and can achieve effectiveness by using TQM
(Chapman and Al-Khawaldeh, 2002). In this era, TQM also focuses on humn
relations which is known as the “soft models”, while its origin have
engineering or statistical background. (Wilkinson, 1992). TQM focuses on the qualitative
aspects such as employee empowerment, customer focus, employee involvement,
employee training, continuous improvement, feedbacks and appraisals, top
management commitment, and teamwork and these are all known as the soft aspects
of TQM.(Ahire et al., 1996).

Comparison of Soft and Hard TQM Practices:

Soft TQM Practices

TQM’s soft practices are included
in company’s strategy, these factors have long lasting impact on company’s
management and performance. (Lewis et al., 2006a; Vouzas & Psyhogios,
2007).  TQM improve both human resource
management and behavioral sides which consist of employee’s training, role of
senior management, teamwork and coordination, relationship with supplier,
creating value to needs and requirements of customers, and achieving customer satisfaction
are the practices with which TQM deal. (Lewis et al., 2006a; Gadenne &
Sharma, 2009).

Incorporation of hard TQM
practices with soft TQM practices improve overall organization’s performance
and impact of soft TQM practices can be enhanced (Zairi & Thiagarajan,
1997). Hard practices can be easily measured while assessment and measurement of
Soft practices is usually tough or challenging. Soft practices are difficult to
quantify than Hard practices for management (Samson & Terziovski, 1999).
Powell (1995) and various other researches have shown that organization which have
implemented soft TQM practices can perform better as compared to others.

Soft TQM Practices include:

Customer focus


Top management leadership

Workforce management

Supplier relationship


Role of both Soft and Hard Aspects of TQM in Job Satisfaction:

review highlights that quality management practices and techniques have been acquired
as a marketing strategy in the post-liberalized economy (Ebrahim
Sultani, 2006). By reviewing and going through
different research articles it is found that in both service and manufacturing
sector the organizations which have implemented soft and hard practices have
increased their performances (Lakhal,
2006) . An assessment of literature showed
that both soft and hard aspects of TQM leads to employee job satisfaction and
employees started to put more faith in organization’s policy. (A
Wilikinson, 1996)Various researchers have use soft and
hard as variables in their studies.

soft aspects include transformational leadership, workplace spirituality,
service climate, human resource management practices, employees’ affective
commitment and job satisfaction. The hard aspects incorporate the management
information system and physical evidence” (Christos
B. Fotopoulos, 2009). It is said that the acquiring of
soft and hard aspects of quality management is important or beneficial to succeed
service quality, employee satisfaction, employee commitment and customer
satisfaction (Christos
B. Fotopoulos, 2009).


In our study, we critically analyze each soft aspect
used in this research article. We also examine how they are related with job
satisfaction and job commitment. Apart from this we also highlight a comparison
between soft and hard aspects of TQM.

Our study suggests that if organizations empower the
shop floor employees or workers and train them properly, it would improve overall
organization results. The results also high lights on the implementation of
training and the critical role of top management commitment to achieve job
satisfaction and commitment. The findings provide a prescriptive outline for
the design and implementation of continuous improvement techniques, training,
teamwork, and top management commitment.

Focus of our study is on comparison of soft and hard aspects
of TQM and it only high lightened nine soft aspects of TQM and its impact on
job satisfaction and commitment, while on the other hand, various other HRM practices
such as compensation, rewards, recognitions, and bonuses, overall
organizational culture, and atmosphere could be included as factors of inspection
and another model can be developed and tested.

Critical Analysis on Article: Does the Soft Aspects
of TQM Influence Job Satisfaction and Commitment?

Following measures are
used as soft aspects in the article for which we have chosen for our study. Now,
the question is whether these factors lead to job satisfaction or job commitment
or both. We will discuss them one by one in detail.

Employee empowerment

Employee training


Appraisal system

Customer focus

Continuous improvement

Top management commitment

Organizational trust

Employee involvement


Diagramatic view of article measures is shown below:


Employee empowerment
Employee training
Appraisal system
Customer focus
Top management
Organizational trust
Employee involvement