Introduction:Energy is a basic requirement for the existence and development of human life.Primarily, the commercial sources such as fossil fuels (coal, oil and naturalgas), hydroelectric power and nuclear power provide the energy needs of acountry. The demand for energy is growing at an alarming rate year after year. Globalenergy consumption has increased from 9000Mtoe in 1990 to approximately14000Mtoe in 2016.
Buildings are major consumers of energy insofar as theirconstruction, operation and maintenance are concerned. Though this is not verywell quantified in India, yet there is ample scope for energy savings. Theindoor environments are becoming increasingly important for human comfort andfrom health point of view.
It is estimated that almost 50% of the global energydemand is due to buildings .With the increase in standards of living, theconsumption of energy in buildings is progressively rising. The boom inbuilding sector is going to create further demands, resulting in greaterpressure on the energy supply situation. In this context, the conservation of energy inbuildings through appropriate construction, operation and maintenance practicesassume prime importance. Eco-friendly houses can be a versatile solution forovercoming energy crisis. Various researchers have found so many methods toconstruct eco-friendly houses. Globally government of major countries arepromoting eco-friendly construction by funding and conducting awarenessprograms. In order to promote eco-friendly constructionin India, nirmithi Kendras were established which was funded by HUDCO.
Mainobjective of nirmithi Kendras is to promote CEEF (cost effective eco-friendly) technology.Dakshina Kannada nirmithi kendra is one such organisation which was establishedunder the national network of building centres in India on January 5 1990. Various activities of nirmithi Kendras are: 1. Trainingfor construction workers.2. Productionof cost effective building materials.
3. Constructionof public, private and govt. buildings using appropriate constructiontechnology.4. Disseminationof the technology through awareness programmes, orientation programmes, exhibition,seminar, guest lectures etc.
NirmithiKendra uses various technology which is quite different from conventional inorder to make houses eco-friendly as well as economical. Some of thetechnologies are:1. Masonryarches2. Fillerslab3. Exposedlaterite masonry.4. Ferrocement roofing’s, interiors etc. Lifecycle costing (lcc) gives the total cost that the building incurs during itsentire life time.
Lcc comparison of conventional building with eco-friendlybuilding gives a broad idea of which house is low cost. Various life cyclephases of building are 1. Planning2. Construction3. Utilization4. Endof life Duringeach phase building incurs so many cost which may be broadly classified as 1. Initialcost 2.
Maintenancecost3. Energycost 4. Salvagevalue Sumof all the above cost gives us the life cycle cost of the building. LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Matthias Buyle, Johan braet (et.al.)2013: This paper has reviewedthe use of life cycle assessment in construction sector.
Authors by theirliterature survey has observed that during the lifespan of the building, itconsumes lots of natural resources as well as energy. They have also observedthat more attention is being paid to sustainable housing technologies andconstruction methods. They have also highlighted the regulations made bydifferent countries for energy use and have also showed the resultant energysavings by their respective regulations. They also observed that there werevarious tools like environmental impact assessment (EIA), system of economicand environmental accounting (SEEA) etc. Was developed to asses sustainabilitybut none of the tools gave more detailed report when compared to life cycle assessment.
LCA considers whole life cycle of building from cradle to grave. Theyobserved that LCA can be frequently used in industry as the life cycle ofproducts are less when compared to whole building and also building uses manydifferent materials and processes. So buildings require much more assumptionswhich may lead to some uncertainties. Hence life cycle assessment ischallenging task for buildings. This paper mainly focus on LCA of entirebuilding which includes energy consumed for construction, renovation,demolition etc. Finally the authors concludes that , though LCA has somelimitation LCA is still a powerful andscience based tool to assess environmental impacts , lots of researchopportunities are dwelling in the field of LCA and LCA can be best used toassess detailed environmental impacts than other tools . 2.
Reneta Schneiderova Herlova 2017:This paper gives the role of LCC in the feasibility study of constructionproject. Generally feasibility study is conducted at early phase ofconstruction project because more benefit can be obtained. Here author hasshaded light over the customer, according to him customer focus only onpurchase cost and tend to ignore operation cost. Author believes that byconcentrating only on the purchase cost customer may lose a holistic view ofreal cost in building and it may lead to cost-inefficient solution. Paper byvirtue of its literature also says that about 80% of buildings operational costwill be influenced by early design stage.
He also debates that, both academicresearch and the industry itself claim that an integrated design process,including life cycle costing and optimization, can significantly reduce theoperating and maintenance costs. The utilization of LCC analysis allows anearly estimate of the operational saving potential and/or collection andassessment of alternatives.LCCwas accepted by British standard since 1992 and was incorporated in ISO in2000. ISO states LCC as “a techniquewhich enables comparative cost assessments to be made over a specified periodof time, taking into account all relevant economic factors both in terms ofinitial costs and future operational costs”. Author also says that despite rapidlydeveloping interest in recommending the LCC approach as beneficial, theacceptance and utilization of LCC in the construction sector remains limited.
He also points that there is a gap between theory and practice and the reasonfor this gap is not clearly known. Hestrongly suggest feasibility study to be done before commencing the projectbecause the study gives an idea about whether the project is a reasonableproposition and also its helps in determining possible alternatives . Generallythe project feasibility study is traditionally worked out through considerationof financial issues, such as return on investment, demand and supply in themarket, risk analysis for market conditions. He advises that designers andengineering consultants should be interviewed at the feasibility stage andasked for a professional opinion on different alternatives and their influenceson project sustainability as a life cycle cost.Butan important question arises while doing economic optimization at early stageson how to put economic optimization into early design stage? For this hesuggest to do the LCC assessment based on applying reference values ofcomparable building.
Data can be obtained through regression analysis ofexisting building data or an aggregation of building elements. He also suggeststhat four different study periods for buildings may be used in LCC: economic,technical, physical and utility life spans. Economic life span is an estimateof the building’s profitable time.
The technical life span is the estimatednumber of years before the technology renders the building obsolete. Thephysical life span is the estimated period in which it is physically possibleto use the building. Finally, the buildings utility life span is that estimatedwithin which the building can satisfy established performance standards.
Thispaper also points some of the demerits of using LCC. 3. Mustafa Yolmaz, Adam Bakou (et.al) 2015: thispaper throws light on the sustainability in construction sector. Sustainabilityconcept can be defined as “meeting the needs and expectations of the presentwithout compromising future generations to meet their own needs andexpectations”. Paper by virtue of its literature survey says that a strategicdevelopment can be provided via balanced and consistent synergy ofenvironmental, economic, and social components of sustainability.
Paper givesthe idea about how environmental, economic and social sustainability can beachieved and what are all the data which are required for achieving all threesustainability’s. Also he has discussed on how sustainability is scaled. Authorbelieves that is a need for international organisation which has a supranaturalauthority on consumption of resources and solution of environmental problem.
Paper also gives some sustainable development strategies.Authorstrongly portrays that sustainability in construction sector is highlyimportant as the construction industries consumes around 45% of the worldenergy. When looked environmental effects; 23% of air pollution, 50% ofgreenhouse gas production, 40% of water pollution, and 40% of solid waste incities are environmental problems caused by buildings. Paperalso portrays the importance of sustainable architecture which is nothing butecological sustainability.
It also says the importance of sustainableconstruction industry at global, national scale. 4. Lukasz Nazarko 2015: thispaper concentrates on how technology assessment in construction sector can be astrategy towards sustainability. Technology Assessment is seen in thescientific literature as a powerful strategy of generating the appropriate technologiesnecessary to achieve sustainable development. It provides information andknowledge on technical systems and their connections with the economic, social,political and environmental implications. Author believes this knowledge incrucial in achieving sustainability in construction sector. Author describes technological assessment asa systematic attempt to foresee the consequences of introducing a particulartechnology in all spheres it is likely to interact with.
Technology Assessment(TA) is treated here as a specific analytical form of Future-OrientedTechnology Analysis (FTA). FTA is an umbrella concept covering a broad range oftechnology-oriented “futuring” methods and practices that include technologyforecasting, technology foresight and technology assessment.FTAcan be done by technology forecasting, fore sighting and assessing. Paperinforms about various organisation which were established globally fortechnology assessment. It has enlightens the difference between public andprivate sector assessment.
Hereauthor has defined assessment through various points and has also accepted thatthere is no rigid formula as to how technological assessment should beperformed. Paper has given some popular TA methods in a poppers diamond. Four keyaspects of TA methods: creativity, evidence, expertise, interaction. Presentedmethods have also been divided into quantitative, qualitative andsemi-quantitative.
TechnologyAssessment in the Construction Sector can be applied in Material engineering(including nanotechnology), energy, IT systems, transportation and waste etc.Author believes that there is a relatively low number of construction-relatedTA initiatives. Authorconcludes that when conducted with methodological rigour and democratic accountability,TA has the potential to enhance the roles of science, technology and innovationtowards achieving cleaner environment, more efficient economy and more justsocieties. 5.
Jian Chu 2016: thispaper gives one of the innovative method or solution through whichsustainability can be achieved in construction. This paper gives a solutionrelated to geo technical engineering. These include the use of bio cement as analternative to Portland cement for soil improvement, the use of bio-desaturationas a method for mitigation of liquefaction hazard, the use of plastic waste tomake construction products, and the use of the NEUSpace method for landreclamation in deep water to reduce the usage of fill materials.
Thissolution can be applied for buildings which are constructed on soft ground andwhich requires strengthen the soil. Usually cement or chemicals are used totreat soft soils. Use of cement of chemicals is not a sustainable idea as itconsumes lots of natural resources and hence bio cement is used as analternative in this paper. Bio cement is made of naturally occurringmicroorganisms at ambient temperature and thus requires much less energy toproduce. It is sustainable as microorganisms are abundant in nature and can bereproduced easily at low cost. The microorganisms that are suitable for makingbio cement are non-pathogenic and environmentally friendly. Author has observedthat by using bio cement calcium content can be reduced in a noticeable amount.
And also bio cement consumes lesser time to gain strength than normal cement. Similarlyauthor has given so many innovative methods such as bio-desaturation forliquefaction hazard, using of plastic waste to make construction products etc. Overallby using this innovative methods which does not compromises with the strengthparameters can be easily adopted to achieve sustainability. 6. Manjesh Srivastava, Vikas Kumar 2017: this paper portrays manydifferent techniques to obtain sustainability in India. According to authorsustainability depend on three key parameters – —income level, size of dwellingunit and a?ordability. This paper aims to point out the various aspects ofpredestined building methodologies by highlighting the di?erent availabletechniques, and the economic advantages achieved by its adoption. In a buildingthe walls, ?oors and roofs are the most important sections, which can beanalysed distinctively based on the needs, thus, improving the speed ofconstruction and reducing the construction cost.
This paper also aims to coverthe use of local materials in the di?erent components of building to make themas low cost available solutions for low income groups.Inorder to come up with viable solutions this paper compares the constructioncost for the traditional and low cost housing technologies and it was observedthat with the use of technology and reuse of waste material as buildingmaterial the cost of construction can be minimized to an extent. It wasobserved that with if the ?ller slab can be used as an alternative toconventional slab the cost of construction can reduce up to 25%.Authorshave presented so many alternatives that can be adopted to achievesustainability and also they have specifies so many methodologies through whichcost effective houses can be built.
Authors have also studied and presented theavailability of natural material in different places of India and also theirapplication in building houses. Onesuch examples is filler slab, author has found that by using filler slabtechnology around 16% of cement, 44% of steel can be reduced without muchcompromising on strength. Authorshave also conveyed that by using the mentioned techniques both eco-friendly andcost effective houses can be built. 7.
Ar. Manita Saxena, Ms. Shruti Sharma 2017: thoughthis paper doesn’t mainly concentrate on civil engineering aspect,architectural design also plays a major role in achieving sustainability. Civilengineering and architecture are a brother hood branches.
If the technologyfrom both fields are combined then a drastic amount of sustainability can beobtained. Authorhas mentioned some organisation which are still working on improving theirdesign along with low cost. Author says SIR Laurie baker as the Gandhi of lowcost housing, so many architects who are working on low cost house are mainlyinspired by bakers work. Author also portrays various architectural scenariolike post independent scenario, rise of vernacular architecture and currentscenario in architecture. Here authors also specifies the introduction of lowcost techniques in India. Authorshas also mentioned some wonderful architectural techniques developed by themodern age architects inspired by the work of SIR Laurie baker which can beused to get a house with beautiful design as well as low cost as well aseco-friendly .
8. Shagufta Sajid Mumtaaz Sayed (et.al.)2015: thispaper presents the case study of LCC and financial analysis of energycomponents of mass housing projects. The place of the project is the sub-urbanIndia. Author believes that environmental concern based design is veryessential in urban India as urban population needs and consumes most of theenergy. The paper discusses the economic feasibility of using energyconservation green components by performing their life cycle .cost analysis(LCCA) in large mass housing projects.
A total of six components includingsolar applications have been evaluated for a case project placed in Mumbaisuburban location in India. LCCA is performed from the projections of Wholesaleprice indices and wholesale market price fluctuations of the commodities. Herein this paper authors mainly concentrate on green components like solarproducts etc. here author has not used a specific methodology in calculatingthe LCC but he has used the method which was used by Arpke and Hutzler (2015).Several energy components like solar photovoltaic panels, solar water heater,solar street lights, compact fluorescent lamp, T5 fluorescent tube, BARC typebio-methanation plants were used for the mass housing projects and were alsoanalysed for LCC. Buildings were designed as per BIS 2005.
The operation,maintenance cost are found for each of the energy components by consulting thespecialists in the field. For findingthe LCC saving cost a brief literature review is studied on light andluminaries. The LCC for a period of 25 years has been found out. To studyenergy consumption pattern of middle class tenancy, a survey was conducted for160 houses whose annual income is in the range of RS 350000-600000. The averagesupply was 3.37 kWh per house. And other operation costs are also calculatedbased on the requirement of the project.
All other cost like replacement costrepair cost are also calculated. Savingswill be in the form of benefits realised by lower consumption of resources suchas energy, water etc. TheLCC analysis of all the energy conservation green components in residentialmass housing complex provided payback of 11 years at 8% discounting rate.
Authors also found that all energy components except SSl gave positive NPV.Savings of all the components were plotted on graph and was compared. Alsovariation analysis was done for all the results.
Finally authors conclude thatthe gap between LCC of green components while doing the mass housing projectcan be filled by the reports published by them. Though initial investments arehigh, when compared to whole LCC green components tends to save much more thannormal components. Summaryof literature review: paper 1from the literature review gives so many methods used for energy assessment ofbuilding and it strongly says life cycle assessment is the best tool to analysethe energy assessment of the building. Paper 2 portrays bout the importance ofLCC in construction sector.
While the first two papers says about LCA and LCC,third paper says the importance of sustainability in construction industry.Paper 4 gives the idea about how technology plays a major role in achievingsustainability in construction industry. Paper 5 presents one of thegeo-technical solution to achieve sustainability. Paper 6 also presents varioustechniques from which sustainability as well as eco-friendly concept can beimplemented in industry. Paper 7 mainly gives credit for the architects whohave worked and who are presently working on the sustainability.
Paper 7 alsoshow some light on the importance of architecture on achieving sustainability.Paper 8 presents a case study where LCC has been applied to various greencomponents. Research gap: variousresearches has been done on the importance of LCA, LCC and sustainability inconstruction industry. Also researches has been made on method for achievingsustainability. One such techniques is a Laurie baker’s technique. Someresearches has already been made on the cost comparison between Laurie bakertechnique and conventional technique but research has not been made on the LCCcost of the buildings which has been constructed with Laurie baker technique.
Objectives: objectivesof this study are : 1. Tofind and compare the LCC of eco-friendly house and conventional house.2. Toquantify the percentage difference in each stage of the building life span. 3. Toprovide the accurate data to nirmithi Kendra so that it can conduct seminars topublic and can promote eco-friendly construction. Methodology:detailed methodology is as follows:1.
Initialcost of the buildings can be calculated by detailed estimation of the buildingby using its ground plan. Estimation is done by centre line method.2. Maintenancecost for the eco-friendly house can be done by asking the house owners who areresiding in it from many years, maintenance cost of conventional building canbe obtained by PWD maintenance manual. Cost difference can hence be found.
3. Energycost is one of the major factor in determining the LCC of the building. Forthis assistance has been asked from the members of the Indian green buildingcouncil (IGBC) and soon energy cost will be calculated based on the methodspecified by them .4. Salvagevalue can be found out by Net present value method (NPV).5.
Byadding all the individual costs incurred in different stages of each type ofhouse we can get the total LCC of the buildings. By this data cost comparisoncan be made between two types of houses.