INTRODUCTION fertility etc. These sensors are also capable

  INTRODUCTIONTO PRECISION FARMING AND ROLE OF NANOSENSORS IN PRECISION FARMING. SUBMITTED BY:      Pranay Ahuja                                    BTMT-8                                    A1223314005   INTRODUCTIONPrecisionfarming is a system based on Information and technology which helps indetecting and analysing the variability in agricultural fields for optimumprofitability, sustainability and protection of the land.

This is done bycontrolling and monitoring the field application rates such as yield,application rates etc. about every 3 feet in the field at a low cost. The mainobjectives of the Precision farming are;®   To increase Profitability andSustainability®   To improve Product quality®   To conserve water®   Effective Pest ManagementPesticidescan be applied in only needed areas, for ex : areas of pest infestation, whichreduces the amount of pesticide and reduces the harmful effects of pesticideson the environment.The variablefactors that are measured with the help of precision faming are;®   Pest Population®   Moisture Content®   Soil Texture®   Topography®   pHThe 3 mainelements of Precision Farming are;®   Information®   Technology®   Decision managementThecomponents of Precision Farming are;®   Planting®   Spraying®   Crop Scouting®   Harvesting Technologiesused in Precision Farming;®   GPS: Global Positioning System is a set of 24 satellitesthat are placed in earth’s orbit to carry out radio signals that are processedby ground’s receiver to determine the position of receiver on earth.

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®   GIS: Geographic Information System is a software thatsends, receives and processes data that are spatially distributed.®   Remote Sensing : It is a software that measures thecharacteristics of the field without having contact with the characteristicthat is being measured. ®   Scouting : This means going through a fieldand analysing it to determine levels of pest infestation and crop development.®   Grid Soil Sampling : It involves breaking of land intogrids (1-2.5 acres) where soil sampling is done to determine appropriateapplication rates.®   Yield Map : Map for determining thevariability in the field. The map is created using GPS and yield monitor.

®   Variable Rate Application : It is an equipment that containscontrollers used to vary fertilisers, pesticides etc. as measured by theapplication map using ‘on-the-go sensor’.’On the go’ sensors, or soil organic matter measures thecharacteristics of the soil before planting and adjusting the seed rate.  Role of Nanosensors in Precision FamingNanosensors are emerging as a useful tool for applications infood & agriculture industry. They show improved Selectivity, Sensitivityand speed as compared to traditional methods. Nanosensors can have applicationin determination of microbes, food pollutants etc. It can also be used tomonitor environmental stresses and variability. For ex : Moisture level, soilfertility etc.

These sensors are also capable of detecting and responding tophysicochemical signal and biological signal, and transferring the responseinto a signal that can be used by humans.There are many sensors that can be used in Precision Farming;®   Sensors for pathogen detection : The sensors are classified into ;a) Direct Methods for Pathogen Detection b) Indirect Methods for Pathogen Detection.Direct Methods includedetection of the pathogen itself whereas Indirect Methods include detection ofeffect of pathogen on plant behaviour.For ex : a) ImmunologicalTechniques using Antibodies or Antigens  b) Molecular Techniques using Acid based Probes are direct methods,whereas Spectroscopic techniques and Volatile Organic Compounds Detectionmethods are indirect methods. 1.)  Nucleic Acid Based Probes : The genomic DNA is extracted frombacteria with the help of thermal. The Genomic DNA is denatured to obtain asingle stranded DNA which is then hybridised using biotinylated single strandto which a capture probe is attached.

To this capture probe,streptavidin-magnetic bead is attached. The target DNA is amplified andhybridised and electrodes with immobilised DNA probe is obtained. TheStreptavidin-Au nanoparticles are added which attaches to the capture probe oftheTarget DNA and confirms presence of analyte.2.

)  Immunological Technique : A sandwich model of antigen antibody detection can be used where acapture antibody captures the analyte and the analyte is then attached to asecondary antibody containing biotinylated to which streptavidin coatednanoparticle attaches and confirms the presence of analyte.®   MEMS Based Sensor for measuringmoisture : TheIrrigation Management Systems should have information about soil moisture atroot level of plants. This helps in providing Irrigation Water in an efficientway. Therefore, Microelectromechanical systems based on Nanotechnology can beused which is a collection of micro and nanosensors.

These sensors help insensing the environment and can also react to changes in environment with thehelp of a circuit control.The MEMS Sensor is based on a shear-stress principle formeasuring water vapour in which the microsensor chip combines a wheatstonebridge piezo-resistor circuit to deliver DC voltages that are proportional torelative humidity. A water vapour sensitive nanopolymer film is bonded on acantilever that expands and contracts when water vapour is exposed.

 CONCLUSIONTherefore,Because of the high surface area of nanoparicles which improves sensitivity,selectivity etc. of  the sensor,Nanosensors are a very handle tool in Precision Farming and these sensos helpin identify, analyse & manage variability in a much more efficient mannerwhich increases profit, makes the resource more sustainable and protects theland in a better way.