Introduction:Healthcare to provide pre-primary and primary medical assistance

Introduction:Healthcare for seniors does not enjoy the same level of freedom and flexibility as compared to that of the younger population. The system fails to meet the challenges of the ageing population largely due to having to tend more to the intense and episodic care for the younger, richer and moderately youthful generation. Since the younger generation lets Google diagnose most of their disease symptoms and healthcare needs, it is only fair to allow the same search engine to decrypt the term ‘IoT’ and all the technical jargon that revolves around it. IoT which is short for ‘Internet of Things’ is a fairly ambiguous term to define the building blocks of all physical objects and networks that are connected over the internet and have the ability to communicate with one another and exchange data. This allows for all information in internet-enabled devices and in all domains to be available over the world wide web making more than 90% of human knowledge and experience transferrable and transformable in the form of data. This data, then redesigned and reconstructed with machine learning and artificial intelligence, can be trained and remastered with modern algorithms, to provide a means of sharing information and knowledge more accurate than human beings. This paper proposes an intelligent model to provide pre-primary and primary medical assistance to seniors and caters to their accessibility needs by providing better healthcare delivery solutions.Background:”Canadian health care is not working as it could, or should. Despite the hard work of physicians, nurses and many other health care professionals who care for patients each and every day, a system that is cherished by Canadians from coast to coast to coast is no longer keeping pace 1. ” Canada is not the only country prone tothe dwindling efforts in medical healthcare for the aging population. Many other countries have reported similar demographic conditions and have implemented their own strategies to improve the healthy well being for the seniors up until 2014, when the World Health Assembly requested WHO to take matter in their own hands 2. According to a survey by Canadian Medical Association(CMA), 9 out of 10 Canadians believe that Canada needs a nationwide seniors’ strategy to address their needs and health concerns. Out of the 90% of people, 83% agree that a new and improved strategy would benefit the entire system altogether 3.When mature adults start to become older, they step out of their work environment routine and step towards a more residence-restricted habitat. They become more acclimatized to their families and their homes and are less likely to go out or engage in physical activities as compared to before, which results in a complex series of health and mental conditions. It is at this point, when they require better primary health care and medication to maintain their health and well-being for as long as possible and to prevent further deterioration, if already any. Family doctors or anyone in the family related to the medical field is the first source of contact, as long as seniors are concerned (95% of seniors) which exceeds that of the young generation (83% of non-senior adults) 4. It is only fair to say that seniors are, and should be concerned with their mental and physical health more than the younger generation, even if it is for the smallest of symptoms and health variations. This is where Artificial Intelligence shall play a key role in fostering any sort of insight that might prevent bad health and/or improve a healthy lifestyle among seniors. The IoT revolution is reshaping the modern world with promising advancements in modern health care technologies and state-of-the-art health care solutions. Therefore, the introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in accordance with Internet of Things (IoT) seems fairly conceivable in the health care domain 5, and in all other areas in general. This brings about an advancement in the field of Artificial Intelligence and how the world perceives it. This is in compliance with any sort of treatment or medication which can be done at home along with a third-party potential application such as remote health monitoring, pre-primary medical assistance, medical home delivery, elderly care, etc., by reducing human involvement through remote provision. Ease of cost effective interactions with in-human beings (BOTs) toresolve medical queries or suggestions and seamless connectivity and more therapeutically effective means over the internet are rapidly changing the picture of healthcare to make quality medication cheaper and better tailored to the needs of senior folks 6. A carefully designed home automation system through a single interface that automates the functionalities of a PC, a mobile phone, a wireless camera network and medical sensors can be useful to detect any medical or physical abnormalities that occur when a senior is subjected to a closed vicinity of his residence. This system can also increase the quality of life for many seniors and their family members by allowing their fathers or grandfathers to spend their years of old age with their families and not having to depend on retirement homes for care and special health care support system. The AIT system is a complex integration of many other smaller applications and sub-systems. It uses real-time video feed acquisition using wireless cameras that combine the processing of onboard sensing using medical sensors and communication capabilities using mobile platform that works on the server side 78.This field has attracted a lot of attention over the last few years and is slowly gaining stature and reputation. This paper examines the various trends that revolves around it and addresses the problems of senior healthcare system through an intricate multi-level multi-platform service with the unique feature of medicine delivery services and pre-primary medical assistance which uses machine learning in the form of artificial intelligence to identify common symptoms and treating/advising first-aid and medication accordingly before the arrival of an ambulance or before consulting an actual doctor. To sum it all up, the features provided by this app are:• Personalised Health Assistance.• Diagnostics Appointment.• Ambulance booking services.• Pharmaceutical home delivery.• Pre-primary medical assistance.• WebEx-vid meeting with doctor.Relevance in practise:Technology facilitates information sharing by which medial information can be shared and distributed across various health care services and providers to coordinate with seniors by implementing knowledge transfer and safe communication about various health care symptoms and medical aids to seniors and also other age groups who often have several medical conditions to deal with 9. The same can be used to integrate various application program interfaces with the AIT service, by allowing seniors of all age groups to communicate with it freely and discuss various symptoms and illnesses. A person uses various voice commands to ask the smart assistant service on the smart device to trigger various functionalities. For e.g., “I am not feeling too well” or “I thing I’m having a bad cold”, to trigger the program interface to activate the “Symptom Finder” intent, thus replying with more follow-up questions from the assistant such “Are you feeling any sort of disorientation?”, “Can you check and read me your body temperature”, “Are you feeling any other symptoms?”, etc., to accurately search and find the most relevant health issue of the person (even based on past medical history and common medical conditions) to provide medical aid to the patient if necessary or any sort of first aid if any accidental injury occurs and also contact nearby hospitals and ambulance services on its own if any sort of unnatural behaviour through voice or visual gesture abnormality is observed. That goes without saying that a detailed input of information, such as, “I am feeling feverish with a temperature of 102 F along with a frequent coughing” might allow the assistant to provide more accurate results faster. It can also be triggered by frequent coughing to sense an illness and provide necessary diagnostic solutions which will learn and adapt with the person’s daily habits and schedules. This personalised healthcare solution uses various data models from various medical dictionaries to identify over 2 million medical conditions and uses the power of machine learning to learn from various users around the globe to improve its services with every interaction 10. This allows for the health service model to improve its accuracy and constituency over time and thus adapting to the numerous new medical conditions and ailments without having to go through the hassle of updates and upgradation. It can work as a real doctor, asking the user about his/her symptoms, providing information andadvice to stay healthy and heal faster, prescribing medicines and solutions just as a normal doctor would, only much more. The pre-primary medical assistance feature is co-related with the above features where, in cases of emergency or accidents, identifies the situation and calls for help or addresses the problem accordingly. This comes in handy mostly when a physician/ doctor is out of reach or not available. Most elders, out of experience, knows that, to treat a common cold or fever, recommended doses of adenol is to be taken and aspirin for headache. The implementation of a personalised smart system for seniors opens a door for elders to adhere to good health through a two-way conversation but only involving a single person. Thus, it not only doctors the individual with respect to medication and health, but also nurture them and reaches out to the person by proactively reminding him/her about taking medicines and helps him stay on track about his daily dosage of medicine and advise him about common troubleshoots, thus acting as a nurse as well.On booking an appointment with the doctor or physician, it notifies the patient and a notification is forwarded to the patient and also to the closest members of the family about booking confirmation with time, date, venue & doctor details. The senior also gets notification alarm within regular intervals of 4hours – 2hours – ½ hours before the visit about the appointment schedule through voice or text notification. There will be also a link through SMS (only for family members) to take the elderly for the appointment. The recommended physician that may be authorised for a particular patient shall have exclusive access to senior’s history with a unique id. An e-prescription is saved in the database on cloud and list of prescribed medicines are home delivered from the nearest pharmaceutical for the senior citizen. It thus helps integrate the patient’s medical background and history with electronic records, thus providing active and 24/7 monitoring of the patient’s health through a follow up with the virtual assistant which fetches the result of the last appointment with the person’s doctor. This can also help monitor any changes in the person’s health condition and treat the person with recommended dosage and symptoms accordingly. It also facilitates video-on-demand doctor appointments for doctors working from home on that specific day, shifts accordingly settled or for disabled seniors who are unable to visit the doctor directly. Figure 1 illustrates the system network architecture.Figure 1: Artificial Intelligence of Things Healthcare System for Seniors Network ArchitectureAn elderly person rarely confesses to being in poor shape and bad heath, psychologically speaking, and this is where the facial recognition feature comes in handy, allowing for a more detailed close-up approach to detecting the health condition of a person by reading facial expressions to decipher communications and feelings without having to speak or listen to a single word. This feature is more advantageous when a person is more solitary or living in a confined space. He then resorts to expressing himself more through facial expressions and bodily movements rather than words. Understanding an individual and what the person is actually going through becomes a task more difficult to decrypt.Some US based companies that are already specializing in this form of technology are:• CodeBaby Corp• Geppetto• Welltok• Kognito• MedrespondThe use of this technology is still in its nascent phase and thus a major security concern is how data can be managed and accessed by authorised personnel in every step of data flow. This also explains why the system follows a systematic hierarchical approach as opposed to an inclined model. The database has to be accessed at various layers of the model and thus a network protocol has to maintained along with valid cryptography such that it does not interfere with each other. Figure 2 illustrates the Hierarchical Model Architecture of the entire AIT healthcare system 12.Figure 2: Hierarchical model of Health Information Architecture 12Conclusion:The healthcare industry for seniors has seen a drastic change in the last 5 years and is on the verge of witnessing a revolutionary adaptation in the coming years. The government of Canada or any international body in general has to take an onerous decision of developing or integrating the healthcare system for seniors to accommodate the needs of the increasing senior population of the country. With the advancement of technology in every field and domain, it is high time that the policy-makers put together pieces to set up a distributed system of health services directly targeting the grey hair. Doctors, industrialists, caseworkers and druggists are missing out on opportunities to organise and specialize in Future healthcare technology due to a variety of reasons – minimal investment from companies, funds that target the future generation more than the past, logistic barriers. In this paper, I have presented an innovative technology that may, in the foreseeingfuture or may not, bring about a colossal change in healthcare technology that can be adapted for the present generation, reducing risk of many health afflictions. This unparalleled personal healthcare system is individual- centric and brings limitless offerings to the table which can impact the long-term health and well beings of seniors, relieving the burden on international hospitality and medication. This can, of course, never be a substitute for a professional medical doctor or physician but it comes close to being an entire system. AIT promises innovative technology by turning the medical community towards a world class artificial intelligent system with future plans of implementing features for the disabled and blind to assist them in their day to day life. Giving vision to the blind using voice, voice to the dumb using text-to-speech and voice to the deaf using speech-to-text are some of the features that the future still holds for the elderly.References:1. Dr. Granger Avery, President Canadian Medical Association. The State of Seniors Health Care in Canada. September 2016. online Available: https://www.cma.ca/En/Lists/Medias/the-state-of-seniors-health-care-in-canada-september-2016.pdf2. World Health Organization (WHO). MultiSectoral action for a life course approach to healthy ageing: draft global strategy and plan of action on ageing and health. Report by the Secretariat. A69/17 Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly. Provisional Agenda Item 13.4. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 Apr 22. online Available: http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA69/A69_17-en.pdf?ua=13. Canadian Medical Association (CMA) and Ipsos Reid Public Affairs. 2015 National Report Card: Canadian Views on a National Seniors’ Health Care Strategy. Ottawa: The Association; 2015 August4. Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey 2009 Annual Component (Ottawa, Ont.: Statistics Canada, 2011).5. Z. Pang, “Technologies and architectures of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) for health and well-being”, Jan. 2013.6. Karthik Vasanth, Jonathan Sbert, Creating solutions for health through technology innovation. Texas Instruments, Dec. 2014, online Available: http://www.ti.com/lit/wp/sszy006/sszy006.pdf7. Shahram Nourizadeh, C. Deroussent,Y.Q. Song, J.P. 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