Invasive plantspecies are not speciesthat part of an ecosystem that can damage ecosystems, the environment, economiclosses, and / oradversely affect biodiversity and human health. Someinvasive species which is spread in some national park in Indonesia such as Acacianilotica in Baluran National Park,East Java (Siregar & Tjitrosoedirdjo, 1999), Chromolaena odorata inPangandaran and Ujung Kulon National Park (Tjitrosemito, 1999) and Piperaduncum (Sunaryo et al., 2012). Impact of this invasive species notonly ecological impact, but also sosioeconomic impact, include human health (Reaseret al.
, 2007). Kaufman & Kaufman statedthat invasive plant species can controlled by three methods: biological,chemical and mechanical methods. Biological control is doneby utilizing natural enemies.Biological control has many advantages including small risk, noimmunity, no harm to human health and the environment, and does not requiremuch interference from outside. It depend on an animal eating the plants or diases infectingit. The dissadvantages it generally biological control agents do not eliminatea species, they simply keep it in check and prevent it from spreading (Kaufman & Kaufman). Messing & Wright (2006) stated that biologicalcontrol is efficient, rational, transparent, accountable, and ecologicallymeaningful.
Chemical control is use herbiside thateither kill plants on contact or are absorbed into the plants. Herbicides veryconsiderably in price, effects, safety and method of application. Using acombination of control strategies, both chemical and nonchemical will helpreduce the risk of herbicide resistance (Kaufman & Kaufman).
Herbicide glyphosateis used for controlling Canada thistle (Circium arvense) as invasiveplant species in Beltsville, MD (Ziska et al., 2004). Mechanical control is carried out by clearing and makingthe partition to prevent crops from spreading to local plant areas.
Mechanicalcontrol is cheap but labour intensive. The dissadvantages of pulling or diggingplants is that it often causes soil disturbance, which can create new sites forthe invander’s seed to germinate. It makes great environmental damage. Prescribedburns can be used in some ecosystems to kill emerging seedlings or reduce aseed bank, but some invasive plants are well adapted to fires and may evenbenefit from controlled burns. It is important to understand the life historyand adaptations of the plant you are trying to control and the ecology of the plantcommunity it is growing in (Kaufman& Kaufman). Fire is used for mechanical control of invasive plants in America (Brooks et al.,2004).
Of the three methods described, biological control is thesafest andlong term control system optionfor ecosystems at a lowest cost. Integrated management using biological and mechanical controls are recommendedfor applicate invasive plant species (Mimosapigra) (Paynter, 2002). However,integrating several methods will be far more effective in overcoming theproblem of invasive plant species.