ISRAEL-OVIRIH PETER 15CN03264 PET 327PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY GROUP DEXPERIMENT ON DENSITY 19TH JANUARY, 2018 COVENANT UNIVERSITYOTAABSTRACTDensity, or mass density can be appropriately defined as the mass perunit volume of a material substance. Density is represented using the character “?”. Itis a letter in the Greek alphabet called “Rho”. However, it is sometimesrepresented using the Latin letter “D”. Density is obtained by dividing themass of the substance by it’svolume.
Mathematically, represented below:? = m / vDensity, is a very important property when it comes to drilling fluids.The pressure exerted by a static pressure(i.e the hydrostatic pressureof the drilling fluid is dependent on the density of the drilling fluid.Therefore, the proper control of the density of the drilling fluid will in turncontrol the hydrostatic pressure. The hydrostatic pressure of the drillingfluid has to be greater than the formation pressure, in order to prevent theuncontrollable flow of formation fluids into the wellbore.
This experiment determines the density of two different samples ofdrilling fluids. INTRODUCTIONThestarting point for drilling fluid pressure control is mud density.Thedensity of a substance, is it’s mass per unit volume. It is represented withthe Greek character “Rho”- ?. The Density of a drilling fluid needs to be monitored closelyand adjusted in order to control the pressure properties of the fluid tomaintain wellbore stability.Inthis experiment, density is determined using a four scale mud balance.It is a standout amongst the most delicate andexact field instruments accessible for deciding the thickness or weight-per-unit-volume(particular gravity) of penetrating liquids.
Anexceptional favorable position of this Mud Balance is that the temperature ofthe example does not tangibly influence the precision of readings. A higheffect plastic case ensures the adjust amid transport and gives a protectedbase in its working position.TheBalance is developed so the settled volume container toward one side of the baris adjusted by a settled stabilizer at the contrary end, with a sliding weightrider allowed to move along the graduated scale. A level bubble mounted on thebeam indicates when the system is in balance.Themud balance is built with a beam graduated into four scales:· Poundsper gallon· Specificgravity· Poundsper cubic foot· Poundsper square inch per 100 feet of depthThescale ranges are from:· 6.5– 23.0 lbs/gal (ppg)· 0.79– 2.
72 specific gravity (s.g)· 49-179lbs/ft3· 340– 1190 psi/1000f EXPERIMENT APPARATUS· GraduatedCylinder· ElectronicLab mixer/stirrer · Fourscale Mud balance CALIBRATION OF SCALE1. Fill the cup with water first, the close the lidand wipe the top of the lid and the body of the cup itself dry with a napkin ora soft cloth.2. Start the rider off at 8.3ppg or 10s.g, then moveuntil the instrument is in balance.
When the level bubble on the beam is at thecenter of the two vertical lines, then the system is in balance.3. If the reading is below 8.
3ppg, add the difference thebetween 8.3ppg and the reading to the mud weight. If the reading is higher than8.3ppg, subtract the difference from the mud weight after a test is made. PROCEDURES1. Place the mud balance on a leveled surface. 2.
Put the test liquid into the cup. 3. Cover the cup with it’s lid and turn it clockwiseto set it in place. Make sure some of the test fluid is expelled from thelittle hole on top of the lid, this shows that the cup is full and it will alsofree any trapped air or gas. 4. Cover the hole on top of the lid and wipe the lidand the body of the cup with a dry cloth.
5. Then, place the mud balance on the knife edge andmove the rider along the scale until the bubble indicates that the system isbalanced. 6. Obtain the mud weight by reading the value on thescale. RESULTS Density(ppg) Lbs/ft3 Specific gravity (s.g) Psi/1000ft SAMPLE 1 8.
70 65.1 1.09 450 SAMPLE 2 8.90 66.6 1.11 460 DISCUSSIONSSample 1 is a water based mud consisting of Water and Bentonite.
Sample2 is a water based mud consisting of Water, Bentonite and Barite. From theresults above, it is shown that the density of sample 2 is greater than the densityof sample 1. Barite is a weighting material used in the field to increase muddensity, and from this experiment, it can be observed that the sample withbarite has a greater mud weight than the mud samples with only water andBentonite. The Barite, increased the mud weight of sample 2.