It is very different learning a native language since childhood when we learn to think and communicate in a language as a natural process, and when we choose to learn a new language in our youth or as an adult. A native language is part of our being, whereas learning a second language puts a high demand in a time-bound fashion, in learning what should actually take years to master.
One of the biggest challenges in learning a language is attaining fluency while communicating — in speaking the language or in understanding others when they speak — despite having learnt perfect grammar and vocabulary.
Hence, an effective language lesson needs to address all aspects of a language — Grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, listening, conversing — in a manner that it can help the student use the language in daily life, since the objective of learning a language is to be able to communicate effectively.
Learning by oneself and learning as part of a group, or with a partner has distinctly different learning outcomes. Learning in a group allows plenty of interaction, practice speaking and repetitive use of the language, and an opportunity to measure progress through tests, and assessments allows for comparison and competition, which can also work as a motivator.
One of the most important elements, also, is the ability of the teacher / coach to be proficient in communicating, transferring knowledge and engaging the entire class.
Though grammar and vocabulary are important parts of learning a language, developing the ability to use it correctly in writing, speaking and understanding requires proven effective methods. An effective language lesson should have a goal & objective for each class, be a fun and motivating experience, allowing a lot of practice focusing on student talk time, with an attempt to link between the lesson and everyday life, while integrating some parts of the cultural knowledge .
Other than text book exercises, activity and task-based practical learning like learning vocabulary in phrases that can be used immediately with colloquialism, pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, spelling going hand-in-hand.)
might help in developing the application of the language better and quicker., word games, story books, movies, conversation practice etc. can engage students much better and encourage them to research some grammar and vocabulary on their own for more effective learning and keep them immersed wholly in the learning process. Celebrating any kind of progress also goes a long way to motivate further learning.