JackieGeller PSG-102Need prof name hereJanuary28th, 2018Respiratory In the field of polysomnography, itis important for the documentation of patient’s respiratory functions in orderto ensure whether or not they are suffering from certain conditions. The equipmentused will measure both the patient’s airflow during the exam and the effort.However, these two variables are measured by different sensor types becausethey are in charge of measuring different type of data. When measuring respiratory airflowduring an exam, there are a handful of sensors that can be used to measure thisvalue.
These can either be thermocouples, thermistors and pressure transducers.A thermistor is a resistor with a supplied current that measures the variationsin the temperature it encounters during the breathing cycle that ultimatelyleads to resistances changes of the sensors (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). What this specific sensorallows for is the measurement of the temperature, either the decrease orincrease, at which occurs when the patient is at either the inspiratory orexpiratory parts of the cycle, respectively, that is the generated signal (Thomas Edison StateCollege, Lecture 3).
Thedifference, a decrease or increase, measurements of temperature allows for thegeneration of signals that can be picked up during the examination (Thomas Edison StateCollege, Lecture 3).In addition, these sensor uses an adaptor which produces a current that is ableto power a transducer within the equipment that allows for the creation of thesignal (Thomas EdisonState College, Lecture 3).Whereas thermistor has a supplied current, thermocouples are similar functionalityand output locations expect for a few aspects. Those are that they produce avoltage rather than being supplied a current, in addition to using metals thatare not similar that generate their results (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). Although they may havedifferences, their sensory goals are similar.
Both are created in order toallow for the most optimal detecting zone and allow for the even minute changesin the respiration temperatures leading to massive changes in the resistance ofthe sensors (ThomasEdison State College, Lecture 3). Because of the easy recognizable changes in resistance, thesetwo sensors for airflow are extremely sensitive and are able to produce extremelypromising and recognizable results that can be interpreted. Typically, what occurswith these two types of sensors is that filters are used to maximize thedesired signal which produces an upward signal when the patient is breathing inand a downward signal when the patient is exhaling. In addition to monitoring airflow,during a polysomnograph you can allows monitor the respiratory effort of apatient during the examination. Although there are various types of sensorsthat can be used to measure this variable, there are only a two that areapproved methods with only one of those that that allow for a directmeasurement of the respiratory effort of the patient.
The sensor that allowsfor the direct measurement of effort is the esophageal pressure monitoring orPes (Thomas EdisonState College, Lecture 3). A Pes is an invasive monitoring sensor that utilizesa transducer connected to a catheter that measure pressure of the esophagus andinhaling effort of the patient (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). In addition, and similar to that of theairflow sensors, the Pes uses filters of similar frequencies to select for thedesired signal (ThomasEdison State College, Lecture 3). A prime example for the utilization of this sensor is theconfirm a diagnosis of central apnea because it allows for the documentation ofthe lack of effort present during the examination (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). Being an invasiveprocedure, this form of monitoring is typically avoided for the sake of the procedureand safety of the patient. The only other sensor that is approved for themeasurement of effort is a respiratory inductance plethysmography or RIP. Withan RIP method, it measures the physical changes of the chest that occurs duringa breathing cycle.
More specifically speaking, what is measured with type of sensoris the differences between the area of cross sectional location of the chestranging between the ribs and stomach (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). The sensors consist of belts withinsulated wires that has a current being passed throughout which are placed onthe chest and stomach (ThomasEdison State College, Lecture 3). When the individual inhales and exhales, the current that isbeing passed through the wires ultimately changes its shapes in a conductor witheach effort which ultimately generates a signal that can be interpreted (Thomas Edison StateCollege, Lecture 3). Thebelts used are able to interact to an amplifier and utilizes filters similar tothat of airflow sensors that allow for the generation of the desired signalswith similar production of signals of inhaling and exhaling to that of airflowsensors (ThomasEdison State College, Lecture 3).
Another type of sensor that can be used to monitor respiratoryeffort of a patient is an impedance pneumography. In this sensor method, itallows for the measurement of differences of the impedance thru the conductor inthe equipment generating the signal for effort of the patient (Thomas Edison StateCollege, Lecture 3). Acurrent is passed through the measuring electrodes on the patients, from oneside to the other, and the difference in electrical resistance that occurs inthe quantity of air in the electrodes generates a signal, similar to airflowsingals, that can be interpreted by using filters that focus signals to therespiratory effort (ThomasEdison State College, Lecture 3). There are various types of sensors that can be used to measurethe amount of respiratory effort that a patient producing during the exam, eachwith a different process in completing and generating an effort signal. ReferencesThomasEdison State College. (2009, December 3). Lecture 3 Biopotentials.
RetrievedJanuary 27, 2018, from http://www.tesu.edu/dial/psg/psg102/lectures/Lecture3/Lecture3_print.html