Jackie a decrease or increase, measurements of temperature

Jackie
Geller

PSG-102

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January
28th, 2018

Respiratory  

            In the field of polysomnography, it
is important for the documentation of patient’s respiratory functions in order
to ensure whether or not they are suffering from certain conditions. The equipment
used will measure both the patient’s airflow during the exam and the effort.

However, these two variables are measured by different sensor types because
they are in charge of measuring different type of data.

            When measuring respiratory airflow
during an exam, there are a handful of sensors that can be used to measure this
value. These can either be thermocouples, thermistors and pressure transducers.

A thermistor is a resistor with a supplied current that measures the variations
in the temperature it encounters during the breathing cycle that ultimately
leads to resistances changes of the sensors (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). What this specific sensor
allows for is the measurement of the temperature, either the decrease or
increase, at which occurs when the patient is at either the inspiratory or
expiratory parts of the cycle, respectively, that is the generated signal (Thomas Edison State
College, Lecture 3). The
difference, a decrease or increase, measurements of temperature allows for the
generation of signals that can be picked up during the examination (Thomas Edison State
College, Lecture 3).

In addition, these sensor uses an adaptor which produces a current that is able
to power a transducer within the equipment that allows for the creation of the
signal (Thomas Edison
State College, Lecture 3).

Whereas thermistor has a supplied current, thermocouples are similar functionality
and output locations expect for a few aspects. Those are that they produce a
voltage rather than being supplied a current, in addition to using metals that
are not similar that generate their results (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). Although they may have
differences, their sensory goals are similar. Both are created in order to
allow for the most optimal detecting zone and allow for the even minute changes
in the respiration temperatures leading to massive changes in the resistance of
the sensors (Thomas
Edison State College, Lecture 3). Because of the easy recognizable changes in resistance, these
two sensors for airflow are extremely sensitive and are able to produce extremely
promising and recognizable results that can be interpreted. Typically, what occurs
with these two types of sensors is that filters are used to maximize the
desired signal which produces an upward signal when the patient is breathing in
and a downward signal when the patient is exhaling.

            In addition to monitoring airflow,
during a polysomnograph you can allows monitor the respiratory effort of a
patient during the examination. Although there are various types of sensors
that can be used to measure this variable, there are only a two that are
approved methods with only one of those that that allow for a direct
measurement of the respiratory effort of the patient. The sensor that allows
for the direct measurement of effort is the esophageal pressure monitoring or
Pes (Thomas Edison
State College, Lecture 3).  A Pes is an invasive monitoring sensor that utilizes
a transducer connected to a catheter that measure pressure of the esophagus and
inhaling effort of the patient (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). In addition, and similar to that of the
airflow sensors, the Pes uses filters of similar frequencies to select for the
desired signal (Thomas
Edison State College, Lecture 3). A prime example for the utilization of this sensor is the
confirm a diagnosis of central apnea because it allows for the documentation of
the lack of effort present during the examination (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). Being an invasive
procedure, this form of monitoring is typically avoided for the sake of the procedure
and safety of the patient. The only other sensor that is approved for the
measurement of effort is a respiratory inductance plethysmography or RIP. With
an RIP method, it measures the physical changes of the chest that occurs during
a breathing cycle. More specifically speaking, what is measured with type of sensor
is the differences between the area of cross sectional location of the chest
ranging between the ribs and stomach (Thomas Edison State College, Lecture 3). The sensors consist of belts with
insulated wires that has a current being passed throughout which are placed on
the chest and stomach (Thomas
Edison State College, Lecture 3). When the individual inhales and exhales, the current that is
being passed through the wires ultimately changes its shapes in a conductor with
each effort which ultimately generates a signal that can be interpreted (Thomas Edison State
College, Lecture 3). The
belts used are able to interact to an amplifier and utilizes filters similar to
that of airflow sensors that allow for the generation of the desired signals
with similar production of signals of inhaling and exhaling to that of airflow
sensors (Thomas
Edison State College, Lecture 3). Another type of sensor that can be used to monitor respiratory
effort of a patient is an impedance pneumography. In this sensor method, it
allows for the measurement of differences of the impedance thru the conductor in
the equipment generating the signal for effort of the patient (Thomas Edison State
College, Lecture 3). A
current is passed through the measuring electrodes on the patients, from one
side to the other, and the difference in electrical resistance that occurs in
the quantity of air in the electrodes generates a signal, similar to airflow
singals, that can be interpreted by using filters that focus signals to the
respiratory effort (Thomas
Edison State College, Lecture 3). There are various types of sensors that can be used to measure
the amount of respiratory effort that a patient producing during the exam, each
with a different process in completing and generating an effort signal.

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Thomas
Edison State College. (2009, December 3). Lecture 3 Biopotentials. Retrieved
January

27, 2018, from http://www.tesu.edu/dial/psg/psg102/lectures/Lecture3/Lecture3_print.html