Jean- Paul Sartre is a French philosopher and he is one of the keyfigures in the philosophy of existentialismand phenomenology. His principle philosophical work is Being and Nothingness which embodied a theme on authentic way oflife. According to Sartre, J., Cohen-Solal,A., Elkai?m-Sartre,A., Kulka, J., & Macomber, C. (2016), man is condemned to be free.
Humanbeing lived in anguish, not because life is terrible rather because man is condemnedto be free. Man is thrown into existenceand become aware of himself and has to make choices. Even deciding not tochoose is a choice. According to Sartre (2016), every choice reveals what humanbeing should be (pp. 22-23). A pen knife as an example, it makes something whatit is. It has to have a folding blade or wouldn’t be a pen knife essencepre-exist, the actual pen knife that some makes from a design (Sartre et.al, 2016).
But according to Sartre et. al,(2016), there is no design for human being, no way man would have to be, no Godto create purpose for him. No human nature that fixes for us on how humanbeings should live (pp. 22-23).
Sartre et. al (2016), human beings existence precedes essence is the fundamentaltenant of existentialism. Man creates himself for what he does to the choiceshe made in the world without fixed values, this makes man, man; he is what hedoes.
What heightens the anguish though that every sincere decision he takepresents a picture of what he believes that any human being should be like. Infashioning himself, he fashions humanity. Man has to act as if everyone iswatching him and there is no escape to this (Sartre et. al, 2016 pp. 23-25). Wittmann, H. (2009) tellsthat”the interpretation of Sartre to freedom is that Man is condemned to it.
‘To befree is to be condemned to be free’ (p. 20). The nothingness of man and hisfreedom makes man a continuous project. Man can’t make sense to define himself byhis historicity, present nor his future because change is constant. But man asa continuous project has choices which could attain essence for himself. Achoice cannot be denied and choosing aesthetics that could give essence to lifeis undeniable because everything man does is a choice.
According to the videoof Philosophy tube (from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nLa-jF6hHY&t=332s, 2017), “Essentialist believes that all art has some featurecall it Feature X, the definition of art is just “Everything with FeatureX and depending on what kind of essentialist you are. You might have differentideas about what that feature is.
” Hence what man does is an attribute ofaesthetics.