I ) Utilitarianism: + Whenever we have a pick between alternate actions or societal policies. we must take the 1 that has the best overall effects for everyone concerned. + Harmonizing to utilitarianism. the moral worth of an action is determined merely by its ensuing result.
3 + Utilitarianism is the 1 that maximizes public-service corporation. which is understood in footings of felicity or pleasance. in the moral actions. + For Utilitarianism. the morally best ( better ) option is that which produces the greatest ( or greater ) net public-service corporation.
where public-service corporation is defined in footings of felicity or pleasance.( Ethical motives. Mackinnon ) 4 + Two chief philosophers of Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham ( 1748-1832 ) John Stuart Mill ( 1806-1873 ) 5 II ) Introduction to the chief thought of Utilitarianism: A ) The Principle of Utility ( J.
Bentham ) “By the Principle of Utility is meant that rule which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever. harmonizing to the inclination which it appears to hold to augment or decrease the felicity to the party whose involvement is in question” ( The Principles of Morals and Legislation. J.
Bentham ) + The rule is for the publicity of greater felicity.6 “We ought to make that which produces the greatest sum of felicity for the greatest figure of people. ” ( Ethics.
Mackinnon ) + It is the counsel or rule of moralss: We should advance the greatest felicity in picks or actions. 7 Example: Killing is morally incorrect because it does non advance felicity. But killing would be morally right if it promotes happiness. like the instance of Nipponese narrative and the instance of handicapped individual. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
youtube. com/watch? v=8BjJ3yms8VM 8.II ) Introduction to the chief thought of Utilitarianism: B ) The Greatest Happiness Principle ( J. S. Mill ) “…The credo which accepts as the foundation of ethical motives.
Utility. or the Greatest Happiness Principle. holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to advance felicity. incorrect as they tend to bring forth the contrary of felicity. ” ( Utilitarianism. J. S.
Mill ) “By felicity is intended pleasance. and the absence of hurting ; by felicity. hurting. and the want of pleasance. ” ( Utilitarianism.
J. S. Mill ) .
9 + “According to the Greatest Happiness Principle… the ultimate terminal. with mention to and for the interest of which all other things are desirable ( whether we are sing our ain good or that of other people ) . is an being exempt every bit far as possible from hurting.
and every bit rich as possible in enjoyments. ” ( Utilitarianism. J. S.
Mill ) + The Greatest Happiness Principle: Promote pleasure/ public-service corporation 10 III ) Two sorts of pleasance ( J. S. Mill ) : 1 ) Physical pleasance: satisfaction of physical need 2 ) Intellectual pleasance: satisfaction of rational / religious demand Examples: Aesthetic pleasance. like painting 11.The Painting of Vincent Van Gogh 12 The Painting of Claude Monet 13 + The beauty of music: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Xg4ekh8 MwfM & A ; list=PLF9B40412F22FA26B hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
youtube. com/watch? v=n4ba8A W_Zck 14 IV ) Calculation of Utility / Happiness + Pleasure subtraction Pain = Net felicity 1 ) Act A produces 10 units of felicity and 2 units of unhappiness: net felicity = 8 units of felicity 2 ) Act B produces 8 units of felicity and 4 units of unhappiness: net felicity = 4 units Act A is morally better than Act B.15 + The best pick of Utilitarianism is the publicity of the involvements of the greater ( or greatest ) figure. + The useful does non see the nature of the Acts of the Apostless or the motivation.
but merely the public-service corporation or felicity in amount. + Example: the instance of Down’s syndrome. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=NeaDwFx8fgs 16 V ) The measuring of public-service corporation: a ) Intensity: quality of pleasance.
e. g. winning a hoops lucifer vs ice-cream B ) Duration: the clip lasted degree Celsiuss ) Fruitfulness: Not merely the immediate pleasance. but besides long-run consequence. like friendly relationship. vitamin D ) Likelihood: the intimacy of go oning of the effect ( public-service corporation ) .17 VI ) The cogent evidence of Principle of Greatest Utility or Happiness “ The lone cogent evidence capable of being given that an object is seeable.
is that people really see it. The lone cogent evidence that a sound is hearable. is that people hear it…In like mode.
I apprehend. the exclusive grounds it is possible to bring forth that anything is desirable. is that people do really want it. ” ( Utilitarianism. J. S. Mill ) 18 + David Hume’s Is/ Ought differentiation – ‘Is’ does non connote ‘Ought’ : – e. g.
we have parents? we should obey to parents.VII ) Mill’s the Harm Principle: “That the lone intent for which power can be truly exercised over any member of a civilised community. against his will. is to forestall injury to others. His ain good. either physical or moral. is non a sufficient warrant. .
. Over himself. over his organic structure and head. the person is autonomous.
” ( On Liberty. J. S. Mill ) 19 + The injury rule above promotes freedom. which is as the agencies to happiness.
+ The ultimate or intrinsic Good: pleasance or felicity + Instrumental good is the good which promotes the intrinsic good: instruction. freedom 20 VIII ) Assessing Utilitarianism 1 ) Utilitarian construct of nonpartisanship – The public-service corporation or involvement of the party involved is to be counted every bit. ( NO privileged category under Utilitarianism ) 2 ) The publicity of animate being public assistance and animate being right as the felicity of the animate being is counted every bit good. ( Peter Singer ) 21 3 ) The Utility-oriented attack: A ) Act-Utilitarianism: The effect of this peculiar act is considered.In this instance.
killing the inexperienced person may be justified for the interest of greater public-service corporation. The job of right and justness. B ) Rule-Utilitarianism: The effect of the act is performed as a general pattern ( regulation ) . 22 4 ) Conflict of pleasances Intellectual pleasance V physical pleasance ( satisfaction of hungriness ) How should we act/ take? Life is non deserving populating when it is without public-service corporation or pleasance? 23 + Discussion: Is Utilitarianism a good manner to steer our actions or picks. harmonizing to the common sense of morality and moral patterns? 24.