KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE FOR RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULARDISEASES AMONG BOTH GOVT AND PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN BELAGAVI CITY -A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDYREVIEW LITRETURE1. The cross-sectional study was conducted whenthe?school?year? 2004-05,in Benghazi, Libya. The prevalence for hypertension and also IHD were 15.
1% and2.7% respectively while not signal cases of stroke could be detected on thestudy-sample. The selected CVD should be independently predicted by age,gender, family history of hypertension, BMI, smoking index, fasting blood sugarlevel, and HDL (CI 95%). Risk factors for hypertension & IHD among school teachersin Benghazi, Libya involved age, BMI, fasting blood sugar, gender, smokingindex, HDL, & family history of hypertension.
(1)2. A cross-sectional, hospital-based studywas carried out from May 20, 2013 to July 4, 2013 at Suhrawardy CardiovascularInstitute Dhaka in Bangladesh. The mean KAP score were 21.
45±5.83 with a totalpossible score being 40. Only 5.86% of the samples were able to shows a increasedlevel of proficiency. Most of men had more knowledge (t (1.
962) = 1.334, P = 0.051),also women shows more health-seeking behaviours with powerful statisticalsignificance (t (-2.
135) = -0.407, P = 0.034). Most significant chi-squarerelationships were identified between socioeconomic status (SES) and KAPscores.(2)3. Thecross-sectional survey study was conducted from November 2010 to January 2011 teachertraining in Hong Kong.
Total, 130 pre-service teachers (70.6%) and 54 in-serviceteachers (29.4%) included in the study. Many of the teachers were below 25years old (61.4%).
In that most of them female (n = 100; 54.3%) and maleteachers (n = 84; 45.7%). The majority of in-service teachers were subjectteachers (70.4%) and they had less than 5 years’ teaching experience (74.1%).The teachers’ knowledge regarding hypertension was too low.
Many teachers didnot answered that “increasing of systolic or diastolic blood pressure canrepresent hypertension” (75.5%), “Hereditary plays a major part in thedeveloping of hypertension” (76.6%), and “Hypertension are associated with TypeII diabetes” (65.
2%). Regarding the knowledge of hypertension and stroke, thecorrect measure were only 48% and 53% respectively.(3)4. The prospective study were conducted MultispecialtyHospital at Coimbatore. Participants who all are aware regarding risk factorswere 48% and 52% were unaware. Among the risk factors, over weight was the mostcommon, as compared by high cholesterol level (98%), increased blood pressure(94%) and Smoking (92%).
The participants are also aware about regular physicalactivity and exercise to lower risk factors for heart disease.(4)5. A prospective questionnaire based surveywas administered from October 2014 to March 2015 at Basaveshwara MedicalCollege Hospital and Research Centre, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India. The mostof the participants who all are aware regarding the risk factors are 82% andunaware were 15%.
Among the all risk factors, increased blood pressure anddiabetes (93.3%) first ranked the most, followed by smoking (85.7%), overweight(60%), and age (56.
2%). In that most of the participants are aware of the riskfactors and majority of risk factor in the survey was high blood pressure. The studyalso found that the participants were unaware of comorbid conditions likediabetes and hyper-lipidemia.(6)6. A descriptive, community based,cross-sectional study from September to November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-DuwakotHealth Demographic Surveillance Site, Bhaktapur district in the Kathmandu. 70%of all those participants are women and 26.
9% formal education. The burdens ofcardiovascular risk factors were high, 20.1% were current smokers, 43.
3% show lowphysical activity and 21.6% were hypertensive. Participants showed only less knowledgeof cardiac disease cause, 29.7% found hypertension and 11% found over weight andphysical activity as causes, whereas very less, 2.2% found high blood sugar as causative.Around 60% of participants did not know any heart attack symptoms compared with20% who knew 2–4 symptoms. Median percentage scores for knowledge, attitude andpractice/behaviour are 79.3, 74.
3 and 48, respectively. Closely 44% ofrespondents have insufficient knowledge and less than 20% had more satisfactoryknowledge. Among them with highly satisfactory knowledge, only 14.7% have amore satisfactory attitude and 19.
5% and 13.9% have satisfactory and more satisfactorypractices, respectively.(10)7. The Cross-sectional study wasconducted 78 primary schools 400 teachers in Belgaum city during month of Marchto December 2009. Overall, prevalence of any other form of tobacco use amongprimary school teachers was 14.50%.
Only male teachers 46.03% used tobacco.37.93% are using smoking type of tobacco, 46.56% used smokeless & 15.
51% areusing both types of tobacco products. Most of the users initiated tobacco useby 16 to 20 years of age. A substantial number of teachers initiated tobaccouse for fun, imitation and peer pressure. 58.
33% of the teachers are usingtobacco due to dis-satisfaction from job, 37.50% due to family problems.118. The descriptive analytic study was conductedfrom the year 2012 in Fariden and Chadegan health centres, located in theIsfahan province.
Total mean percentage of knowledge, attitude and practice numbersof health services staff are 56.48 ± 9.89, 67.01 ± 5.46 and 37.56 ± 20.30,respectively. Regarding the risk factors of cardiovascular disease 2.
7% of thesubjects have well and 36.2 % had less knowledge. Furthermore, 4.9% have goodattitude, 0.5% have less attitude, 82.
2% have less practice, and only 1.1% havegood practice.(13)9. A cross-sectional survey was performedfrom February 2009 to December 2010 in Luanda, Angola. The prevalence ratesfor cardiovascular risk factors was as followed by hypertension 45.
2%,hypercholesterolemia 11.1%, less high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol50.1%, hypertriglyceridemia 10.
6% , smoking 7.2%, diabetes 5.7%, overweight 29.3%, obesity 19.
6%, sedentary lifestyle 87.2%, and leftventricular hypertrophy 20%. At least one risk factors were present in 27.7% ofa sample; 15.2% have two risk factors, and 31.4% have three or more riskfactors. Among them individuals with low socioeconomic status, 41.
0% have threeor more risk factors.(19) 10. Thecross-sectional survey performed from September to December 2011 in SouthernNevada. Total Samples of 300 Filipino Americans subjects were participated inour study. Participants had an average knowledge score of 82.81% in thatmaximum correct score of 100%. The risk factors prevalence among them includingthe hypertension (47.7%), diabetes (14%), dyslipidemia (27.
7%), overweight(36.7%), abdominal obesity (80.6%), smoking (11.7%), and lack of exercise(48%). Filipino Americans have sufficient knowledge of heart disease in thatmany of reported having risk factors. Understanding the behavioral basis ofcardiac disease knowledge and specific risk factors are helpful in providingeffective health prevention strategies.
Early screening targeting to theyounger generation are also important for detect the risk factors in the beginningstages.(20)11. Thecross-sectional survey was done from June 2012 to December 2012 in thegovernment and private school in Delhi. The prevalence of overweight andobesity were respectively 9.5% and 11.5%. The percentage of prehypertension, grade1 hypertension and grade-2 hypertension were 12.4%, 6.
8% and 1.4% respectively.Of the total, 43.8% was physically active 1 hour per day on all 7 days of theprevious week. Daily consumption of vegetables and fruits were reported by 76% and42% of the school children respectively.
Report says that 5% of school childrenare used any form of tobacco. 1/5 of the school children had a family historyof CVD. Of the total, 25.4% had adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular riskfactors.(21) 12. A cross-sectional study was conductedin Rukmini nagar and Ramnagar urban area in Belagavi From August 2012 toFebruary 2014. Total sample 119 teachers, 83(70%) teachers age group of 34-53years 86(72.
3%) was female. 109(92%)were married. 87(73.1%) had high waist-hip ratio,15(12.
6%) was diabetics,23(19.3%) had systolic Blood pressure (BP), 47(39.5%) had diastolic BP,54(45.4%) was overwight,31(26.1%) was obese and 42(35.3%) was doing regularlyphysical exercises 85(71.
4%) consumed fruits and 31(26.1%) consumed vegetablesper week smoking and alcohol consumption habits were to be less then1%.(23) 13. A cross sectional survey were conductedin Maralur area of Tumkur town from July to September, 2013. Blood pressure were measured among 70 teachersin the 5 schools of which 19 (27.14%) were males and 51 (72.86%) were females.
20 teachers (28.57%) was diagnosed with hypertension (HTN). 65% of hypertensiveteachers has positive family history of hypertension in this study. 15% ofteachers with hypertension have smoking habit and 10% of teachers have thehabit of alcohol consumption. 25% of hypertensive had less than 6 hours of sleepdaily.
65% of hypertensive do not practice yoga and 75% of hypertensive do notpractice meditation.24 14. Adescriptive, cross-sectional survey done at SRM Medical College, Hospital, andResearch Centre, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India in the month of August 2015. Risk factors for CVD disease as shows by studentswas dyslipidemia(96.8%), obesity(94.
1%), hypertensive(92.8%), smoking(84.4%), diabetesmellitus (DM)(82.4), age(81.
8%), male gender (80.4%), inactivity (73.9%), andfamily history (63.6%). However, only 12.5% exactly identi?ed High densitylipoprotein (HDL) is the good cholesterol. Comparing the mean knowledge scorefor individual components, female participants have better for and lifestylebehaviour.
We could also derive statistically signi?cant differences betweenstudents with smoking history and alcohol consumption compared with thosewithout, in case of total knowledge score25. 15. Across-sectional study was carried out in Kelantan from June to December 2010. Meanage of 39.9 years. In that, 3.1% were smokers and 41.
1% were having medicalillness, the commonest are obesity (23.6%). About 87% of women know that smokingis a risk factor. However, less than 20% knew about menopause. More than 80%knew typical symptoms whereas less than half realised atypical symptoms.
Lessthan 20% of them knew the cholesterol risk target. Remaining 13% of women were exerciseas required. The mean (SD) for knowledge and practice score was 70.6 (13.
76)and 63.7(13.59) accordingly. The median for attitude score was 88.2 (14.71). Thegood knowledge, attitude and practice score was 55.6%, 55.
1 % and 51.1%respectively.(26) 16. Thecross-sectional hospital base study for patients who attending Sudan heartcentre from July to December 2011-2012. The prevalence of general obesity (bodymass index) in that CHD males patients was found to be, (overweight, 37.
6%),(obese class1, 19.5%), (obese class2, 10.5%), and (obese class3, 0.8%). On theother side the prevalence of general obesity (body mass index) in femalespatients were found to be, (overweight, 46.2%), (12% obese class1), (7.7%,obese class2), and (2.
6%, obese class3.(29)17. Hypertension(HTN) screening camp was done on the world health day in 2013, for the staff ofRaichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur. Out of 163subjects, 101 (62%) were males and 62 (38%) were females. Majority, 79.1%, hadvegetarian and non-vegetarian diet, 20.
9% were vegetarians, and 18.4% amongthem added extra salt to the diet. Exercise were good among 27%, as they wereexercising for less than or equal 30minutes in a day. Prevalence ofhypertension were 11.7 %, and 9.
2% of staff had blood pressure in pre-hypertensionrange.(31)18. A cross-sectional study carried out fromthe year May 1st 2008 to May 31st 2008.
Prevalence of risk factors of CHD wereas follows, hypertension 31%, diabetes 21%, high serum total cholesterol 29%,high triglycerides 39%, high LDL cholesterol 19.3%, low HDL cholesterol 17.7%,smoking 26%, sedentary habits 44%, positive family history of CHD 12%,overweight (BMI >25 kg/m2) 33% and obesity 26%.
In this, 55% of the studycase had at least two of these risk factors.(16)19. Community based descriptive cross-sectionalstudy were carried out in Kathmandu. Mean age of the 196 subjectswere 51.
26 (13.56) years. The studyparticipants had only 22% of good knowledge about modifiable risk factors ofCoronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease. Study shows that majority of therespondent lack of good knowledge regarding modifiable risk factors of CoronaryAtherosclerotic Heart Disease. Correctly identified hypertension 85.
2%, obesity61.73%, cholesterol 40.31%, smoking 28.6% and diabetes mellitus17.86% respectivelyas modifiable risk factor of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease.(18)20.
The hospital-based cross-sectional studieswere conducted from January to June 2014 in two tertiary care hospitals under amedical college in Mangalore, Karnataka, south India. Majority of the study participants67.3%, (404) were never smoked in their past life, 21.6% of study participantswere former smokers (130), and 11.1% of the study subject were currentlysmoking (66).
Nearly half of the study subjects 54.7%, (328) were currentlydiabetic mellites. Most of them had abdominal obesity 78.
2%, (469).Exactly 35.3% (212) of the participantshad felt sad for 2 weeks or more in a row in the last year.
(22)21. The cross sectional surveys were carriedout in Maralur area in Tumkur town during July to September, 2013. Bloodpressure were measured for 70 teachers in the 5 schools of which 19 (27.14%)were males and 51 (72.
86%) were females. 20 teachers (28.57%) were detectedwith hypertension.
65% of hypertensive teachers had family history ofhypertension. Teachers having with hypertension having of habit of smoking 15%,and alcohol consumption 10% respectively. 25% of teachers with hypertensive hadless than 6 hours of sleep daily. 65% of teachers with hypertensive do notpractice yoga and 75% of hypertensive teachers do not practice meditation.(32)22. Comparativecross-sectional studies were preformed among 110 bank employers and 110 highschool teachers selected in August 2011.
Prevalence of risk factors for CHDwere high in two groups as follows. Hypertension in teachers 33.3%, and bankers22.9%, diabetes mellitus in teachers 9.5%, and bankers 8.5%, obesity inteachers 30.5%, bankers 20%, hypercholesterolemia have in teachers 37.
1%,bankers 41.9%, sedentary lifestyle teachers having 5.7%, bankers having 33.3%and smoking (teachers 4.
8%, bankers 7.6%).(33)23. Crosssectional survey Were carried out in Bangalore Karnataka, India. 22% of thepopulation were showed no risk of CVD, and then 66% of the population showedmoderate risk and 12% of the population were under high risk.
Smokerswere 29%, hypertensive were 35%, alcoholicare 24%, diabetic were14%, positive family history of CVD were 5.5%, 64% of thesubjects were physically inactive 64%.(35)24.
Cross-sectionalsurveys were conducted between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. Departmentsof Cardiology, Pulmonary Medicine, Endocrinology Internal Medicine Departmentsat a tertiary care hospital at Belgaum district of Karnataka in India.Prevalence of Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and CVD in the 2432 Chronicobstetric pulmonary diseases subjects were 25.94%, 37.25%, and 13.93%,respectively.(36)25. A descriptive cross-sectional study were performedin Kuwait during the year from January to June 2014.
Total numbers of theresponse rate were 90.7%. Participants knowledge about types of cardiovasculardiseases (CVD), heart attack or stroke symptoms were low. 60% of participantsdid not know regarding CVD, and coronary artery diseases were the commonlyidentified (29.0%).
Two-fifths of participants were not aware of any heartattack symptoms, and the most commonly known were chest pain (50.4%) andshortness of breath (48.0%). Participants knowledge about CVD risk factorswere moderate. The common risk factors wereidentified by over four-fifths of participants were obesity, smoking, physicalinactivity and unhealthy diet.(40)26.
A hospital-based, cross sectional survey were carriedout at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), tertiary care hospitalin New Delhi, India. 41% of the sample shows a good level of knowledge. Populationidentified smoking 68%, obesity 72%, hypertension 73%, and high cholesterolcorrectly 57%, respectively. 30% identified diabetes mellitus as a modifiablerisk factor of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease.4127. Cross-sectional community-based studies wereconducted in Kerala during the period from January to June 2011. Prevalence of exactcoronary artery disease (CAD) were 3.5 %, men 4.
8 %, women 2.6 %. Prevalence ofany coronary artery disease were 12.5 %, men 9.8 %, women 14.3 %. There is nodifference in CAD between rural and urban population. Physical inactivity werereported 17.
5 and 18% reported family history of CAD. Other CAD risk factors werefound in the study were overweight 59 %, abdominal obesity 57 %, high total cholesterol52 %, hypertension 28 %, diabetes 15 %, and low level of high densitylipoprotein cholesterol 39 %. Current smoking was reported only by men (28 %).4228. A baseline survey and 6-monthlongitudinal follow-up were conducted between January 2011 and May 2012 in theSA pilot.Theparticipation of schools was permitted by 53.
2% of principals, and 489 of 1 779teachers agreed to participate. Of teachers willing to participate in thefollow-up, 52% were retained, three-quarters by post and a quarter by email.Their mean age was 46.3 years and 70.3% were female. The prevalence of CVD riskfactors was high and featured hypertension (48.5%), hypercholesterolemia(20.
5%), smoking (18.0%), diabetes (10.1%) and chronic kidney disease (10.4%),while 84.7% were overweight or obese. Of the participants, 18.7% were at highrisk of a heart attack or stroke within 10 years. Establishinga cohort study among teachers has challenges but also opportunities foraddressing CVD, which will soon impose a substantial burden on Cape Town’seducation system.
4329. Thiswas a cross?sectional study done among the staff of Lautech, Ogbomoso, Nigeriaand was carried out between November 2013 and February 2014. The studypopulation included 96 males (46.6%) and 110 females. The mean age was 45.3 ±7.9 years (range 27-73 years). The prevalence of CV risk factors were asfollows: Hypertension 84 (40.
8%), visceral obesity 92 (44.7%), generalizedobesity 79 (38.3%), low high density lipoprotein 113 (54.9%), impaired bloodglucose 16 (7.
8%), diabetes mellitus 3 (1.5%), hypercholesterolemia 102(49.5%), left ventricular hypertrophy-ECG 24 (11.7%), elevated low densitylipoprotein-cholesterol 99 (48.1%).
About – (72.3%) had two or more CV riskfactors clustered together. Females had a higher prevalence of CV risk factorsand its clusters than their male counterparts. Of those diagnosed withhypertension in this study, more than half had never been told they werehypertensive 48 (57.1%). This study suggests a very high prevalence of CV riskfactors among University Staff in LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Clustering of CVrisk factors is more prevalent among women.
Appropriate preventive strategy interms of education and modification of risk factors are important to reduce theburden of CV diseases among this population.4630. Across-sectional study was carried out amongst teaching staff of IIMSR MedicalCollege, Badnapur, Jalna, Maharashtra during the period of August to October2016.