LITRATURE REVIEWTumen et al. (2013) investigated the antifungal activity of heartwoodextraction from Juniperus species,for this purposes they were used Juniperusvirginiana, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei.The heartwood extracted with hexane, ethanol and methanol. Hexane and ethanolextracted were tested for antifungal activity against wood rot fungi indifferent proportion.
They noticed that the Juniperusextraction was highly effective against white rot fungi than brown rot fungi.In this case ethanol extracts were highly fungal activity as compare to hexaneextracts.Liu et al. (2010) investigated about the pattern of biodiversityand distribution of junipers, they examined the diversity pattern and biogeographyof Juniperus in semi arid habitat ofNorthern hemisphere. The phylogeny constructed on the base of more than 10,000bp of cp DNA for 51 Juniperus speciesand few species were also examined on the base of nuclear internal transcribedspace (nrITS) and result of both data were congruence to check the status, theyfound that long seed dispersal and migration contributed of modern range ofjunipers while long time climate changes contributes for their diversification.
They concluded their assessment by this agreement that probably Juniperus originated Eurasia and reachedto America once at this time.Dar and Christensen (2003)surveyed the distribution of the genus Juniperusin western Himalaya by extensive herbarium collection, six texa were beingreported from the same region before their work, but they analyzed that theremust had be confusion among synonyms of species so they found seven texa fromthis region i.e. J. communis, J. sabina,J. squamata, J.
recura., J. semiglobosa, J. polycarpos and J.
wallichiana.Adams (2009)Analyzed the wood oils of the serrate leave margined Juniperus of the Western Hemisphere of about 21 species. Herevealed that all texa have sufficient amount of cedrol, widrol,cis-thujopsene, ?-cedren, and ?- cedrene. He also stated that there was to someextend correlation between ceder wood oil composition and phylogeny of Juniperus.Fisher (1997) carriedout an investigation at Asir Highlands of Saudi Arabia about the decline of Juniperus procera woodland. He conductedsurvey between 1850 m to 2800 m of altitude and find out that the decline washighly considerable in lower altitudinal range as compare to high elevation.During his research work he examined poor healthy trees unhealthy barriers especiallymale cones below 2400 m.
The junipers were healthy above 2400 m of altitude. Hestated the results were similar to another species of Juniperus i.e. J. excelsa whichwas already documented from woodland of Northern Oman. He examined the pathogenwas not found as causing agent of decline of the texa, he hypothesized thatpoor growth rate and weaken live form is due to altitudinal variation which may be the reason of climatechanges.Fisher and Gardner (1995) investigated about the Juniperus excelsa one of the frequentlydistributed plant in the mountain areas of Turkey, India and Jebel Akhdar amountanious region present in Oman. They comparatively studied the Juniperus of above 2400 m.
they foundthat the Juniperus of high altitude (more than 2400m ) is quite well, good healthy liffeform and having thecapability of regeneration in both aspects, while below the 2400 m theregeneration was poor and the condtions were unhealthy. For the conformation ofclimatic influence upon the Juniperus theycarried out research work on the ecological status of Juniperus of 32 ha area at Hayl Juwari and analyzed the status andregeneration between wadis and non-wadis and findout that one third of thespecies were in poor conditions, having poor regenerations, poor female coneproductions and relatively unhealthy trees were found in non wadis. Theyhypothesized that the climate at this altitude may be marginal for the survivalof Juniperus excelsa woodland andsmall increasing in climatic stress can imperilthe woodland’s present status.
Achakzai et al. (2016) investigated about the danger of vanishing ofthe Juniper forest of Ziarat, a District of Balochistan. The forest have greatecological importance both regional and global perspective. The study showsthat the forest has been threatened by different anthropogenic activities aswell as natural disaster. The forest is utilizing for fuel wood, for shelter,as timber wood and for food by the local peoples.
They identified that theforest is under serious threats i.e. illegal cutting for fuel wood and timber,over grazing, deforestation, climate change, low rainfall and non regulardrought.Sarangzai et al. (2012)carried out a study on the ethnobotany of Juniperusexcelsa in Ziarat, Bolochistan. Thestudy shows that the local people of the area have deep relation withathnomedicines in the same way different part of J.
excelsa such as fruits, stem, bark and leaves are used to curecoughing, cold, stomach cramps, asthma,diuratic, carminatives, stimulant, dropsy, gonorrhea, gleets, leucorrhoea, andskin diseases. They also stated that oil of juniper barries used in severalproducts, cosmatic industries and as a popular agent for gin.Zangiabadi et al. (2012) investigated of silviculture properties and soilcharecteristics of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb in the southeast of Iran.
They studied the vegetative charecteristics ofjunipers with relation to the soil conditions and physiographic factors inGaloochar juniper forest reserviour in the southeast of Iran. They constructedproduct land unit maps by overlying layers of slopes to observe the phsiognomyof junipers by using 3 measuring sample plots of 40 m × 40 m and than soilsample were taken from each unit and measured chemical as well as physicalproperties of soil in laboratory. They testified the relationship of edaphicfactors with the phsiognomy of juniper trees such as the highest significantpositive correlation for CaCO3 content and canopy cover.Sarangzai et al.
(2012) examined the status of Juniperus excelsa the only conifer tree in Balochistan, Pakistan.It is catagarized as threatened tree by IUCN Red List in Pakistan. They statedthat the co existency of different animals with juniper forest make it uniquein ecological point of view, but increasing in human poppulation, poorregeneration, overgrazing, illegel cutting, agricultural land extetion andperiodic draft and degradating the forest in northeastern region ofBalochistan. Sarangzai et al. (2012)proposed silvicultural practices and proper management for the sack ofdifferent ecological and economic purposes. They identified that Juniperus excelsa does not face anyimmidiate threats however in case of overgrazing and deforestration in futuremay replaced by more competative species.
They suggested that the conservationmay be possible by prohibited of cutting and grazing.Mastelic et al. (2000) Isolated the essential oil by hydro distillationand glycosides were extracted with ethyl acetate from the of Juniperus communis.
After extraction the essential oil was fractionated onmicro column with different solvent having dissimilar properties. The fractionswere analyzed by chromatography-mass spectrometry on two columns havingdifferent polarity solvents. After the test 63 compounds were identified in theextraction, pinene was the abundant most with (16.9%) sabined was at secondmost abundant component with (12.1%) and other components with smaller ratio,after separation final purification of glycosides and enzymatic hydrolysis weremade, the separated aglycones were also testified to fractions of the essentialoil and 22 aglycones were identified. Stampoulidis et al.(2013) studied about the regeneration of pure Juniperus excelsa M .
Bieb stands in Prespa National Park in Greeceand stated that Juniperus excelsa hasa wider growth range in both harsh environmental conditions and bioticseverness. They analyzed the regeneration of J. excelsa to determine whether regeneration gapes are under nurseplants dominancy, for this purpose 90 plots were being stablished in two sitetypes and six structural types. In each plots all the Juniperus excelsa were graded in two catagories i.e. the seedlingthat have been grown under the shadow of other plants catagarized as no.
1,while the seedling that are found in under scatterd plants i.e. without propershed catagorized as second number ranked. They observed that facilitation doesnot effect the regeneration of J.excelsa, however significant number of regeneration plant have beenproduced under the facilitation but some biotic factors like grazing withtrempeling also effect the stablishment of the species both in light and shade.They hypothesized that J. excelsa canbe a best source for the protection of degredation of land.Tavankar (2015) conducted a research work on structure ofnatural Juniperus excelsa stands innorthwest of Iran, a part of an important forest ecosystem in mountain areas ofIran.
The structure of Juniperus excelsa wasobserved between the altitude of 1700 m to 1900 m in the study area. Sheexamined that the mean densities of trees and seedlings were recorded as 99.8 ±32. 0 and 70.5 ± 18.
3 stem per ha, the proportion of these two varities were52.8 % junipers tree while junipers seedling were 19.3 %. Mean of basal arearecorded as 3.12 ± 0.3m (sqaur) per ha,mean of canopy was 42.
7 ± 17.9% and mean of the height of trees were recordedas 2.75 ± 1.1m.
Tawankar concluded with the result that juniper seedling areincreased by increasing stand crown cover, however harsh environmen,overgrazing timber cutting for fuelwood may cause destruction of the forest.Ozkan et al. (2010)conducted a reasearch work on site properties of Crimean juniper in seminatural forests of southwestern Anatolia and impect of mediterrenian andcontinental climates to discover site requirements of J. excelsa in Turkey. They hypothesized variation in environmentalfactors and indicator species can be a best choice to determined the differencebetween occurrence and cover of J.
excelsa for the sack of lagislation orforest management. The environmental variation and species composition wereexamined in 153 plots by Fisher exact probility tests and stepwise discriminantanalysis. They found that high altitude having more than 1000 m is favourablefor mediterenian climate while high stoniness surface is prox favourable forlow competition among the differentspecies of plants so it has been suggested as positive site properties for J. excelsa . however different plantspecies like Dianthus zonatus, Ajugachamaepitys, cotoneaste nummularia etc used as site indicator for J. excelsa restoration.Pierson et al. (2007)Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) has occupied onmillions of acres of different grass rangeland in the Great Basin and interiorPacific Northwest.
On many sites western juniper has significantly increasedexposure of the soil surface by reducing density of understory species andsurface litter. They used rainfall and rill simulation techniques to checkabsorption capability, runoff and erosion on different land after the removaljuniper. The area having juniper dominated slopes had considerably lowersurface soil cover of grasses and litter and produced fast runoff with lowintensity. Open area of the soil to rainfall leads to high levels of sheeterosion in juniper-dominated sites. Large spaces of bared areas concentratedrunoff into rills comparatively higher flowing power and erosive force causerill erosion rates even more than 15 times higher on juniper-dominated sites.Juniper cutting boost up grasses recovery over soil surface also increase waterabsorbing capability and protect soil. Without juniper covers produce runoffwith high-intensity events that would be expected to occurs once every 50 yearscause high intensity of both rill and sheet erosion. They concluded with thatresult the juniper woodland has great ecological impact on soil holding forces.
Willson et al. (2008) conducted a research work on hydraulic traits areinfluenced by phylogenetic history in the drought-resistant, invasivegenus Juniperus (Cupressaceae). They statedthat most ofthe species among Juniperus arefrequently distributed and having the capability to being cosmopolitan in globein normal condition. For understanding succession of junipers in droughthabitat they studied hydraulic characteristics associated with water stressabsorbing forces, like susceptibility of xylem cavitations, size of trachiedsfor conduction, wood density in both root and stem, as well as structure ofleaf of 14 species in the United States of America and the Caribbean. For thispurpose they used a phylogenic base sequence of DNA and fined out therelationship between susceptibility to cavitations and other charactersusing traditional cross-speciescorrelations and independent contrast correlations.
They found that all thespecies were normally high resistant for water stressing cavitations in bothroots and stem. They investigated phylogenitic support for two clades (serrateclade and smooth clade) previously based on leaf margin serration about 34 to39% serrate clade were more resistance to cavitations in stems and rootscompare to smooth clade which were less than 34%. Roots and stem shows highresistant to cavitations. They concluded that high degree of resistance withinclades proved the hydraulic character of Juniperus speciesstrongly reflect phylogenetic history.
This high resistance against cavitationsis evidential proved that junipers survived in highly drier habitat insouthwestern United States and their expansion into arid habitats across thewestern and central United States of America.Tumen et al. (2012) conducteda research work on Therapeutic Approach for WoundHealing by Using Essential Oils of Cupressus and Juniperus species growing inTurkey, they stated that Juniperus has been used as diuretic, stimulant, andantiseptic, for different diseases like common cold and for wound healing inTurkish folk medicine. The study revealed that the essential oils extractedfrom cones of Juniperus berries were precision due to their wound healing andanti-inflammatory result. The wound healing capability wastestified by linearincision and circular excision experimental wound models, evaluation ofhydroxyproline content, and afterward histopathological analysis. The healingcapability was relatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. Theessential oils of J. oxycedrus proved the highest activities, however it doesnot shows any appropriate effect on wound healing.
They concluded theirexperimental study by revealing that the J. oxycedrus shows remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities.Borghesio et al.
(2004) conducted study on Mankubsa and Arero,two Juniperus forests in southEthiopian Endemic Bird Area, to collect data for this research work Fieldsurvey and Landsat satellite imagery were used to check the conservation statusof two Juniperus forests.They testified that the Forest cover and densely populated woodland has reducedin both habitat between 1986 and 2002, they observed the anthropogenic interactionin both habitats and found that human interaction were higher at Mankubsa thanat Arero. They suggested that Mankubsa was highly disturbed due to grazingpressure, uses of land for agricultural purposes, commercial utilization forfuel wood and utilization of timber wood, while most of the degradation atArero is because of the grazing of domestic animals. They suggested thatconservation efforts should be focused by reforestation, and improve uses offorest recourses efficiently at Mankubsa, while at Arero much better resultscould be obtained by boosting pasture quality and protect the posturessurrounding the forest.
Bais et al. (2014) conducted a research work on a psychopharmacologicalreview on a medicinal plant i.e. J.
communis, they find out that Juniperus communis has remain one of the important ethno medicinalplant in past era, the investigation revealed J. communis contain many important chemical components which areused in pharmaceutical medicines. They suggested for further investigation toconform the presence of sufficient amount of these substances whether thesewould be used in pharmaceutical industries for the welfare of humankind.Chen et al. (2015)investigated the drought variability of Kyrgyzstan as an important component ofclimate change of high Asia. They developed three tree-ring thickness chronologiesof Juniperus turkestanica at three microcites,the study revealed the potential utility of tree-ring widths of J.
turkestanica for dendroclimatic condition.They analyzed climate response shows tree-ring widths of J. turkestanica has strongly oppressed as indicators for dendroclimatological studies because of their responses shows to PDSI. While the chronologyat the GUR site with the wet soil has low correlated with PDSI in some situationduring the study year, regardless of a similar retort to precipitation andtemperature. They stated that sensitivity of recent tree-growth to PDSI in theGulcha River Basin was not significantly reduced under climate warm.
The studyconfirmed the subsistence of the recent warming and wetting trend of high Asia,while showed a positive impact of this wetting trend on tree growth.Continued work in this direction enable to recognize better the growth patternof juniper trees under global warming and the past climate changeability ofhigh Asia over long chronological and large special scales