Mainly of both greater complexity and data limitations

Mainly
Drought word is applied when for a long period of time there is no
water or a shortage of water because of increase in evaporation,
inadequate precipitation or over-utilization of water from the
reservoirs and other storage and also includes the groundwater
(Fugare,2017). That period is known as a drought period. A drought
can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15
days. But what is a drought? There is no universal definition of
drought. Climatic definitions of drought focus on a moisture deficit
which is seen to be critical by some specified criteria( S.
Gregory,1986). A together with the relative availability of data, a
decrease in rainfall is the most obvious mechanism for this and, this
leads to more rainfall deficit studies than studies of other aspects
of the water balance. The impact of changes in evapora-tive loss, due
to increases in radiant energy, temperature or wind speed, or to
decreases in ambient atmospheric moisture, has received less detailed
investigation, because of both greater complexity and data
limitations (Palmer, 1965). A drought can last for months or years,
or may be declared after as few as 15 days. Drought affects all parts
of our environment as well as our communities. The different types of
droughts are meteorological Drought , hydrological drought ,
agricultural drought ,drought due to lack of soil moisture (Gadgil &
Malhotra, 1982).

Drought
in Maharashtra

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Based
on climatic and topographical variability, the India Meteorological
Department (IMD) 2012 has divided the state into four
meteorological subdivisions : Konkan and Goa, Central Maharashtra,
Marathwada, and Vidarbha. Monthly rainfall data from 1951–2012 for
four divisions of Maharashtra were obtained from the Open Government
Data Platform of India. Rainfall in Maharashtra is dominated by the
South Asian monsoon (June–September) with an annual average
rainfall of 1465 mm. The division-wide annual average rainfall is
3079, 904, 799, and 1077 mm for Konkan and Goa, Central Maharashtra,
Marathwada, and Vidarbha divisions respectively ( Parameshwar,
Udmalea etc.all 2015.
Maharashtra
is a state in western India. It is the second most populous state
(114 million) and third largest state by area (3.07×105 km2) in
India. It is the wealthiest state in India, contributing about 15% of
the country’s GDP. Although Maharashtra is a relatively
industrialized state, about 64% of the state’s total population and
about 80% of its rural population (42% as cultivators and 38% as
laborers) depend on agriculture and allied activities. Out of 22.6
million ha of the tate’s gross cropped area, about 19.7% and 80.2%
are gross irrigated and rain fed areas respectively, which shows the
heavy dependence of agriculture on monsoon rainfall ( Parameshwar,
Udmalea etc.all 2015). There are two main agricultural seasons in the
state i.e.Kharif hot wet season from June to September and Rabi cool
dry season from October to March. The hottest season from April and
May is called summer.
In
Maharashtra, Some of the major government programmes that help
mitigate the adverse effects of drought is the Mahatma Gandhi
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. The scheme aims to
provide minimum job guarantee for 100 days in a year to the adult
family members of rural households below poverty line. The days for
wage employment can be increased in drought years to help stabilize
incomes ( GOI ,2009 ).

LIVELIHOOD

Livelihood
is a basic need for human beings. Rural poverty is one of the key
factors that shape risk to hazards such as a flooding and drought.
One of the major factors causing flooding and drought is rural
poverty. The poorest rural people are no longer subsistence farmers.
The poorest in rural areas use the most marginal lands and this
forces people to rely on precarious and highly vulnerable livelihoods
in areas prone to flooding, landslide, drought and other hazards.
Rural livelihoods are mostly affected by as global climate change.
The pattern of livelihood for the urban area is different than for
rural and tribal areas. There are various scopes for livelihood
opportunity especially in tribal area. Though people are
self-sustained for their livelihood, they are as yet far from the
mainstreaming development of the nation.
One
such case study is seen in the book of P Sainath which discusses
mainly about Odisha . P Sainath has provided critique of the
government scheme of providing a cow along with land. Government
doesn’t think about the effects of the implementing such a scheme or
program. After that, the government takes the land back from those
people whom they had distributed. The main issues are related to the
water scarcity of the place whereas, there were no base research
conducted before implementing the schemes as both land and cow need
water.

Livelihood
of Nomadic tribe
The
Nomadic and De-Denotified tribes People carved their livelihood
through a variety of activities, they are classified in four
categories. There are classified in 1) Pastorals and
hunter-gatherers, 2) goods and services nomads, 3) entertainers and
4) religious performers (Bokil, 2005) .
So
the pastoral nomads mainly include the shepherds is Dhangar in
Maharashtra , Kuruba in Karnataka also with there are cowherd
communities like the ‘Kathiawadis and Maldharis’ in Gujarat. The
Pardhis community is mainly include in Hunter-gatherer groups which
is a pan- Indian community hunting small game all over the
countryside. The provided variety of goods and services mainly
included the wandering blacksmith is Gadi Lohar,Stone worker is
Patharwat, stone dressers is Beldar, stone worker is Vaddar, metal
casters is Otari, basket and blanket makers is Kaikadi, transports
and salt carriers is Banjara, wool weavers and blanket makers is
Sanagar. The entertainers community is Dombari, Kolhati, Karkrmundi,
Chitrakathi, Bahurupi, Dhangatvir, Nandiwallas, Garudi, Darweshi, and
Makadwale. So they are entertainment needs of rural society. This
religious performance are performed usually village only. The
religious performance mainly included the Vasudev, Gondhali, Rawal,
Gosavi, Aaradhi, Bharadi, Joshi, and others(Bokil, 2005).

Nomadic Tribe and De-notified
Tribes
Nomadic
and De-notified tribes (DNTs) are in integral part of the Indian
society. To be able to understand the meaning attributed to “nomad”
, we see the documented quotes beginning in 1587, is a person
belonging to a race or tribe which moves from place to place to find
pasture; hence, one who lives a roaming or wandering life(Philip Carl
Salzman 2002). The nomads in this times are a dangerous to the whole
society in which “sedentarization in imperative administration and
exercise of control becomes easy” (Bharara 1999: 239,243). From the
earliest time nomads moved across around the South Asia. The nomadic
community is having unique characteristics which are different from
other social group. The nomadic tribe has been divided into sub
groups and each group is having its unique distinguished features.
The nomadic tribe specifically termed as tribe, but yet most of the
states have classified them under ‘Caste Group’. There are 313
sub group of nomadic tribe community in India (Rathod M, 2000). South
Asia has the world’s largest size of nomadic population. They also
own or make use of the large populations of a variety of creatures
such as herded bovines, equines, camels, sheep, goats, pigs, ducks,
guinea- fowl (Gadgil and Malhotra 1982).