Example: set SMART goals Organizing : deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and who will work for whom. Example: make job description for employees so that they will understand more about their responsibilities and position eating : inspiring and motivating people to work hard to achieve organizational goals Example: communicating with employees and make them feel engaged and motivated Controlling: monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed. Example: compare the actual performance with the goals that have been set and take corrective actions if needed.
Management Skills technical skills : ability to apply the specialized procedures techniques and knowledge required to get the job done example: nurse supervisor needs to know how to give an injection and know exactly what to do if a patient goes into an emergency situation human skills : the ability to work well with others encourage others to express their thoughts and feelings, sensitive to others and be a good listeners and communicators conceptual skills : the ability to see organization as a whole and understand how different part of the company affect each other example : if the company does A what will happen? Division X does B what will if affects to division Y? Relationship between functions and skills planning and conceptual; to plan, one needs to recognize what will happen to the company if plan A is determined, what if plan 8 is, etc controlling and technical skills; in order to take corrective actions, the way the procedure gets done needs to be considered 3. Explain three ways a company can create competitive advantage through its people. Explain why each of these would result in competitive advantage.
Ways to create competitive advantage: employment sec rarity offering employees long term contracts, avoiding large scale firing of employees why might result CA: employees would feel safe, and performance would improve selective hiring a hiring process which only hires talented, dedicated applicants why: well trained employee in a suiting position would do better self managed teams and decentralization offering employees the opportunity to work in a group and allow them to make their own decisions why: more people mean more ideas and letting them to make their own decision would make them be more creative and satisfied – as long as to achieve the same goal high wages and contingent on organizational performance attract and retain quality of employees why: make employees more motivated training and skill development people need to be trained in order to achieve at a higher level and to develop why: people who are well trained would do better with effective and efficiency reduction in status differences employees are treated equally why: would minimize unnecessary competition and make employees feel more comfortable and happy sharing information employees to help make decisions why: they will feel more engaged 4. Look at the Sam Morning case study. Define a management skill and function. Explain how the skill and function have been applied in the case duty. Function: planning: about the rising price Of meat CLC could influence the budget goals organizing: she needs to organize and decide who will work at certain times and certain tasks.
Controlling: she needs to control the activities of her employees C] when she meet the cook, and visit patients to reassure if everything is okay and that she will look at the complaints and to take care of it Skills: when she needs to decide who can leave during holidays: human skills to decide based on the personal situation (those with more important situation should be allowed to take the holiday). Conceptual skills are needed to know if certain employee’s absent would affect certain activities and help to determine how many can leave before the effectiveness is reduced Technical skills are needed to understand when leave could be taken to not upsetting the activities from the absent of employees. When she talks to the cook Human skills are needed to deliver the message clearly but not hurting or make things more complicated with the cook 5. Define two principles of scientific management and give examples to illustrate their use.
What is an advantage or disadvantage of each principle? Scientific management: thoroughly studying and testing different work methods to identify one best way to complete the job 4 principles if scientific management C Frederick w Taylor 1) Develop one best method for performing tasks based on study a. Example: through systematic experiments, it is found that giving frequent breaks resulting in more productive and effective outcomes b. + the work will be done more efficiently c. -? to find the best method; it is costly and takes a lot of time 2) Scientifically select, train, teach and develop the workers to help them reach their full potential a.
Example: select employees based on their aptitude test then train them on that field to let them use their full potential and do the job better. B. + getting more output efficiently c. – training and teaching often cost a lot and takes a lot of time 3) Co operate with the workers to ensure work is being done using the one best method for performing tasks 4) Divide the work equally between workers and managers a. Workers to make the products and managers to perform management tasks rather than putting all the work and responsibilities upon the employees b. + employees would feel the fairness and therefore do better reference c. – until now still a lot of managers don’t take responsibilities and put them on the employees instead 6. Curiously, however, whether they increased or decreased the lightning, paid workers based on individual production or group production, or increased or decreased the number and length Of rest pauses, production levels increased” Explain two reasons why this situation known as the Hawthorne effect occurred? Describe an example of how the Hawthorne effect is applied in today’s world? What actually happened was that six individuals became a team and the team eve itself wholeheartedly and spontaneously to cooperation in the experiment. The consequence was that they felt themselves to be participating freely and without afterthought Hawthorne affect is applied in today’s world with work teams that are currently often being formed by companies. Hawthorne affect is actually caused by increased attention from management and the development of a cohesive work group that led significantly to higher levels of job satisfaction and productivity.
With being in a group team that is cohesive, employees will feel more attached and responsible and as well as putting more inputs as hey want to their own team to be success. 7. Give an example of two PEST factors. Describe how these factors might effect the specific environment. PEST FACTORS (general environment): Indirectly affecting the organizational environment. Can be controlled. 1) political or legal trends: legislation, regulation and court decision. Managers need to be educated about things that could affect the business. Ex: maternity holidays, employees harassments. 2) Economy: if economy is growing, more people working, more wages then more consumptions.
If economy is shrinking then less money to buy things then less producers hose products being bought. 3) coloratura trends: demographic changes (20 years ago woman with children aren’t hired. Now its equal and day care and maternity holidays are available). Changes in behavior, attitudes and beliefs of people in particular society (Nikkei wasn’t the trend in china but with good advertisements, now it’s a lifestyle). 4) technology trends: used to transform inputs into outputs. Companies with latest technology will win since it makes things more effective and efficient and also could reduce cost. Internal environment: directly affects the company conducts its business. Can be controlled. 1)
Customers: the one who buys the products. Needs to monitor the consumer wants and needs. 2) Competitors: companies in the same industry who sell similar products to customers. 3) Suppliers: companies that provide resources (material, human and information) 4) industry regulation : consist of regulations and rules that govern the business practices and procedures of specific industries, business and professions. 5) advocacy groups: groups Of concerned citizens who gather to try to influence the business how pest can affects specific environments: if the economy is shrinking then automatically people would likely to hold jack their money and prefer not to spend them.
Therefore customer needs and wants are changing and companies need to notice this and adjusts their production etc if new technology is born, company needs to watch out to competitors whether they already have or plan to use the new technology and take quick respond about it since technology is really important and can make a company losses to the competitor if they don’t match up the competitor’s technology if new legal trends is made this could change almost all specific environment. It can trigger any advocacy groups activities, customer demands and changes n competitors’ company and industry regulations. If coloratura changes, it could change customer wants and needs. If one trend is over companies need to catch up with it and changes their product or service to catch up with the new trends. 8. Consider the first group case analysis. Describe two pest factors influencing first group and how they might effect the specific environment. Then consider any effects on the planning decisions of first group.
Two pest factors that influenced first group: 1. Political or legal trends: legislation, regulation and court decision. Managers maternity holidays, employees harassments. . Economy: if economy is growing, more people working, more wages then more consumptions. If economy is shrinking then less money to buy things then less producers whose products being bought. It also influences basic decision making such as how many new employees should be hired, when to take out loans. If the UK gob has signed the Kyoto agreement and therefore agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, it would affect costumers demands as gob encourages students to go to school with public transportation.
Parents would want a safety trips for their children so first group needs to listen to he new changing needs and improve their safety. The increase in fuel tax which is influenced by the economy, will also increase customers demand since people would prefer switch from personal cars to train and buses because its more economical and therefore first group needs to listen to the new changing demand also. 9. What is one general advantage and disadvantage to planning. Describe two steps in the planning process. How might each of these steps produce an advantage to the organization Planning: bringing the future into the present so that you can do something about it now. Advantages: resistance 0 to stay on track and focus on the direction. Working hard for long periods.
Direction to direct the persistence efforts intensified effort to achieve goals creation of task strategies (divide work and plan into tasks to encourage people to think of better ways to do their jobs) Disadvantages blocks change and adaptation O resisting from changes and don’t want to adapt to new strategies if plans failed create false sense of security since its all based on assumption at the start detachment of planners planners tend to detach themselves from the progress. Steps in the planning process: 1) set goals a. Smart goals . Specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and timely c. Specific goals provide a target for which to aim and a standard against which to measure success d. Needs to be specific and challenging e. Produce advantage as the organization will know what to aim because of the clear goals 2) develop commitment: not automatic. Managers and employees need to commit themselves too goal.
But rather than assigning goals, they participate in making them so that they feel more engaged. A. Produce advantage as workers with commitments would result in better work performance 3) develop effective action plans; how who what when. Specific steps, people, resources, time period. A. Produce advantage as workers will understand more about what to do and how to do it 4) track progress toward goal achievement a. Produce advantage as tracking can help to take corrective actions when needed 5) maintain flexibility: because sometimes goals turn out not to be achievable. A. Produce advantage as when plans don’t work as wanted, necessary changes can be adjusted 10.
What is the purpose of strategic planning? What are the parts of the SOOT analysis? How does the SOOT analysis influence the formulation of strategies give two examples to illustrate? See cataracts example in review exams. Purpose: to analyses the strengths and weakness of the organization and opportunities and threats from outside the organization and to overcome W and T and make the best out of O and S. Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats. Expansion to emerging economies. There are great opportunities for coffeehouses in china and India in which cataracts has comparably only modest number Of restaurants (opportunities). CLC china expansion.
As is the case with Japanese, Chinese people live as extended families in small houses this means that there is a strong demand for subs as a third place. Last year subs opened 500 new stores in china No 1 brand in coffeehouse segment that has a strong brand reputation associated with quality coffee (strengths) L] the company continues to focus on its original product bundle that includes good coffee, quality service, a nice environment to hang around. 1 1 . Define control. Draw the cybernetic control process. Give an example to explain standards and measures of performance. Control is a regulatory process of establishing standards to achieve organizational goals, comparing actual performance against the standards and taking corrective action when necessary. T standards C] measure performance C compare with standards 0 identify deviations D analyze deviations D develop and implement program for corrective action C] back to measure performance standard is a basis of comparison for measuring the organizational performance as satisfactory or not. Egg: benchmarking other companies measures of performance is comparing the actual performance to the performance standard. Egg: use secret shoppers who visit stores pretending to be buyers and determine whether the employees provide a helpful customer service or not. 12. Describe two methods of control and describe an example which illustrates their use. A) bureaucratic control 1 top down control that reward and punish actions according to the organizational policies. It’s a managerial control where manager controls everything 2. Cost of government organization use this method b) objective control 1 . Extension of BC. But BC is focusing on whether the policies are being followed or not. CO focuses on the observation or measurement of the output or behavior 2. Two kinds of CO a. Behavior control: regulation of behavior and action that workers need to perform on the job. Exhibiting the right behavior should result in achieved goals b. Output control : workers can behave however they want as long as they accomplish specified measurable goals c) normative control 1 . The values and beliefs of the company guide the decisions being made by employees 2. Regulation of workers behavior through a widely shared organizational values and beliefs. 3.
Egg : Nordstrom d) Conceptive control 1 . Regulation of workers behavioral and decision through work group values and beliefs 2. Develops as team develops 3. Egg: incur e) Self control 1 . A control system in which managers and workers control their own behavior by setting their own goals, monitoring their own progress and rewarding themselves for goal achievement. 13. Describe a type of control and describe one advantage and one disadvantage of this type. Give an example to display how this type of control could be applied. Bureaucratic control: top down managerial control, which means manager takes control of everything, and rules needed to be followed.
Advantage: fairness because rules applied to all employees and all are being treated equally. Disadvantage: rules focus that reduces creativity and motivation Egg: in government organizations where people who don’t follow the rules get punished and people who do get rewarded. Conceptive control: regulation of workers behavioral that are valued by work group. Advantage: team members are involved in developing regulations that they feel strongly about following them Disadvantage: feeling burdened by the heavy responsibilities and expectations from fellow team mates 14. Explain 3 differences between mechanistic and organic organizational structures.
Give an example of an organic organization and describe two reasons why it is organic (use the description of organization A and B in the review exams) mechanistic has narrowly specified job desks and responsibility, organic isn’t mechanistic is based on centralized authority, organic is decentralized mechanistic has a rigid chain of command, organic doesn’t mechanistic has unchanging roles, organic has changing roles organic organizations sought 15. Describe two characteristics of effective teams and explain why they might make a team more effective. Describe a problem associated with teams (either social loafing and group think) what is one reason why this problem occurs Two characteristics of effective teams: 1) team cohesiveness which means the extent to which team members are attracted to be a team and motivated to remain in it. Cohesive teams retain their members, willing to help each other and have high levels of performance. ) Team goal setting means setting clear goals for the team to achieve. 3) Team recognition; recognition needs to be given to the performance of the team 4) Team selection; the team needs to consist of people with different personalities to result in various perspectives and opinions. Why? Team cohesiveness will make team member feel motivated to remain in it and do their best for the team resulting good performance. Team goal eating would give clear aim for the team and teams with goals have better performance than those who don’t. Team selection is needed to prevent only one result because of the same personalities of the group members that it doesn’t make it more efficient.
Social loafing is the declining productiveness of one’s outcome. People in a group would tend to think they don’t need to do their best and that will reduce average outcome per person in a group. Often larger groups have lower average outcome per person than smaller groups or an individual. Corrupting would resulting in inefficient meetings and it could be caused by he hardships of determining place and time to gather, or the minorities who prefer not to voice up their opinions and buried by the majorities instead. 16. What is motivation? Describe three levels of measles hierarchy of needs. Give examples to show how could an organization satisfy the needs at each level.
Motivation: set of forces that initiates, directs and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal Mascot s hierarchy of needs: 1) self actualization: when someone realizes their full potential and fulfill their ambitions a. By letting someone to be creative and be satisfied because of reforming with their full potential 2) esteem: self esteem, confidence, respect to and respected by people. A. By respecting oneself and recognizing their performance 3) Belongingness: working with people, making new friends, family a. Doing outings with fellow work partners 4) Safety: feeling secure (of body, health, family, property etc) a. Providing secure environment with securities etc 5) Physiological needs: food, breath, drink, shelter a. Give decent salaries 17. Describe three features of another motivational theory.