Many of spilled oil, and restoration of the

Manysectors depend on crude oil suchas industry and power generation.

Crude oilis one of the primary sources ofpower in the developed nations. Thusthe need for crude oil ishigh. In spite of thecrude oil beingconsidered as non-renewable,a needto discover newsites such as off shore is now very popular.

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These sites include oil handlingunder sea level. Thus, an emergency plan should be prepared before dealing withany activity including crude oil or any of its components, examples of suchactivities as oil refining, storing, transporting,exploring and oil well drilling. Thesecomponents have severe effects on the environment and its elements. Thus, thenew technologies and developments inresponse to emergency situationsin the case of oilspill accidents should befollowed. This study shows the advanced developments in the field ofdiscovering the oil spill locations, thenew technologies in reducing the damaging effects ofspilled oil, and restoration of thecontaminated sites in the case of oilspill in water bodies.

 It isshown that the new developments in mitigating oil spills starts withmonitoring the activities that handle crudeoil andpreparing emergency plans for worstpossible scenarios. Following the international laws in dealingwith crude oil helps a lot in preventing andmitigating the oil spill accidents. Newdevelopments in containing theoil spills are in using boomsthat are fabricated from highabsorbing materials and manufacturing of cleaningagents that has the ability to dissolve theoil and its components (hydrophobic) that helpsin removing spilled oil mainly from water.  Thefate of all oil spills will be contingent upon a set of circumstances that willoversee risk and impacts, including the volume of oil spilled the chemicalnature of the oil, and the ecosystems with their specific environmentalconditions impacted by the spilled oil. However, one common denominator is thecosmopolitan nature of oil-degrading microbes.

Natural and enhancedbiodegradation greatly reduced the concentrations of oil spills. It was the microorganismsthat were largely responsible for the reduction of the spilled oil that hadspread into the environment. The mitigation process will move rapidly if thereis an understanding in determining both natural and enhanced biodegradation andwhat the best possible approach will be to minimize the risk and impact of thespill on the environment.