Many people around the world are suffering from limb impairment and disability in walk-ing. This may be cause due to various ailments or disorders that may have renderedtheir senses to walk redundant.
Many such patients are prescribed with wheelchair fortheir movement.3 There are different types of wheel chair. Wheelchairs have been beenin use for over hundreds of years, but early wheelchairs were intended for the movementof only disabled person.2 The first noted wheel chair developed by the Chinese to helpboth carrying objects as well as to help disabled people to walk.15 With the need andtechnology, the usage of wheelchair had been modified and new technologies have comeup.
There have been different types of wheel chairs based on the control mechanism,the activity it performs technology used or the terrain its accessed on2. Some of whichare stated below:1. Generic type manual self-controlled wheel chair.2. Joystick controlled wheelchair for independent and simpler access.3. Battery powered wheel chairs.4.
All terrain wheel chairs.5. Self-balancing wheel chairs6. Gesture controlled wheel chairThese are very basic ways in which the concept of Smart wheelchair can be implementedbut however with the use of brain waves to control the movement of wheelchair we canmake the wheel chair ever more efficient as well as cater to a broader class of patients.1.1 TechnologyElectroencephalography: A brain waves technology that involves measuring various elec-trical activities taking place in different parts of the brain.16 BCI (Brain ComputerInterface) was proposed in the year 1942 by Hans Berger a German neurologist who dis-covered the pattern of brain waves as a form of electrical impulses fired by several neuronsin the human brain. Each electrical signal corresponds to different activities.
These canFigure 1.1: Classification of BCI.be captured and studied via BCI in three different ways: Invasive BCI, Partially Inva-sive BCI, Non invasive BCI (as shown in Fig 1.1). Electroencephalography was onlyused in hospitals owing to its expensive equipment of measurement and its unavailabilityfor common people.
12 However, the advancement in technology has made EEG relatedequipment like Neuroskys Mindwave Mobile affordable and is also made available to thedevelopers in the market paving way for limitless possibilities in the field of Electroen-cephalography and its use. Combining this technology with the pre-existing wheelchairwill provide doctors as well as patients with new options for motor disabled handicaps.1.2 MotivationThe motivation of the EEG-controlled wheelchairs is to facilitate assistance in mobility inorder to accomplish complex navigational tasks in realistic environments for the paralyzedpatients. It includes the development of automatic navigation strategies and personalizedinteractive assistance to enable the patients to move effectively and easily. One attemptattracting considerable attention in those fields involves the utilization of bio-signals suchas an electroencephalogram (EEG) or electromyogram (EMG)5; obtainable from thehuman body as a means for interaction with the surrounding world.
In the field of brain-computer interface (BCI), meaningful information deriveddirectly from a users brain activity has been used to manipulate systems.19 However,despite the definite advantage unique to EEG signals that allows a system to be controlledonly by ones thoughts, the poor signal-to-noise ratios in the spontaneous EEG signals and2the lack of consistency in the signal patterns still make their application impractical. 281.3 ObjectiveAs a result of a variety of accidents or diseases such as a spinal cord injury (SCI) oramyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), many people suffer from a severe loss of motor func-tion.
318 These people are forced to accept a reduced quality of life, depending on thecare of other individuals. Even though useful human-computer interfaces based on speechor bio-metrics have been developed to communicate with computers, most of them areaimed at providing people without disabilities with more convenient or advanced means,while neglecting individuals with severe disabilities.Thus, the needs for a novel interface to help the disabled leading a more im-proved life have been addressed, and corresponding effort has also been made in the fields3 related to rehabilitation engineering and user interface (UI) development.The basic idea of this project is to develop a prototype of a miniature wheelchairthat can be controlled by a persons eye blinks and brain wave data.14 This projectinvolves conversion of brain wave data into wheelchair movements. A pre-existing androidapplication will be used to collect the data form the brain wave sensor and transmit itthe Arduino board for action.
1.4 Problem DefinitionThis project addresses the physically handicapped people especially the ones with nocapacity of mobility. Some of the problems as to why this project could be used are givenbelow:1. Mobility for people who have lost their hands and legs due to accident or somedisorder is extremely difficult.52. Complete dependency of disabled people with no limbs or motor related disorder.
3. People with partial paralysis or ALS access to only some activities of brain.4. People with motor related problems with fully functional brain suffer incapabilityto travel and move.Thus this helps resolve their dependency to someone for their movement.
It also aims inmaking the already existing wheelchairs even more efficient.1.5 Design flow of projectThis project starts with signals being received from the brain and thus is done by capturingit through the Neuroskys Mindwave mobile. This headgear collects the brain signals andconverts these electronic brain signals into digital signals used for transmission.
Thesesignals are then given to application receives the raw data from the Neuroskys Mindwavemobile and also classifies these signals into formats that could be used to control wheelchair.3HC06 Acts as interface between android application and the Arduino board.This module is responsible for receiving data from the android application. This is usedto transmit the conditioned signal from the android application to the Bluetooth presenton the Arduino board.Figure 1.
2: Design flow of the projectArduino Uno receives these signals and the code in Arduino Uno controls themovements of motor on the basis of the signals received and the conditions provided toit.Motor drivers and motors are the part of wheelchair used for its movementbased on the received signals. Given in Fig 1.2 Is the flow chart of the entire process.