Mead’s Biography George Herbert Mead an American philosopher, sociologist, and the psychologist was born in South Hadley, Massachusetts in 1863 in a middle-class family. He completed his early education from Oberlin College and further with Harvard University, where his main interests are psychology and philosophy. Mead married in 1891 Helen Kingsbury Castle, who died in 1929. After he moved to the University of Chicago, where he taught till the end.
He believes that the use of science can be possible in solving social problems. He is known as the founder of his famous work of symbolic interaction. Herbert Mead died in 1931 due to a heart attack. Mead’s Writings Mead in his whole career span of forty years had written various book reviews and articles on topics which are related to psychology and philosophy. After his death, his students gathered all his left work and unpublished material which includes his famous work on the theory of Mind, Self and Society and The Philosophy of Act.
Mead work is not easy to be understood that’s why it took a long time to publish the reviews of the book and articles written by him. Mead’s Work Symbolic Interaction & Pragmatism Majority of the Mead’s work focuses on the development of self. In one of his writing, he wrote that; “The individual mind can exist only in relation to other minds with shared meanings”Mead’s two important thoughts are related to the symbolic internationalism, in which the first one is Social behaviourism and second is Pragmatism, which is a wide-ranging philosophical position from which several aspects of Mead’s influences can be identified. He talks about the 4 believes that are; 1. The true reality does not exist in pragmatists, it is basically created. 2. People mostly base their knowledge on what is important to them and rejects and alter the remaining. 3.
People also define the physical and social objects they face according to their use. 4. If people want to understand actors, we must understand first that what exactly people do. 5. Third, people define the social and physical “objects” they encounter in the world according to their use for them. Mead talks about the symbolic interactionism, which is categorized into three beliefs. 1. One’s ability to interpret the social world.
2. A view of both the actor and the world as dynamic processes and not static structures and3. The focus on the interaction between the actor and the world Social Behaviourism Mead’s believes that an individual’s mind and self-has basically emerged from the communication to the surrounding.
His idea receives a great respect in the 20th century in the field of social philosophy. This idea of his also known as social behaviourism. He believes that through communication our sense of self is made. According to him, the mind does not have any biological transactions and adoptions but it is made through the interaction from the surrounding and the communication that we do.
It is established due to the participation in the society and the interaction with another. Also, there is no presence of mind if there will be no language, a medium through which getting human experience is possible. His concept of the social act is basically present a valid argument which is a link to the social psychology as well. He also believes that actions have an importance in the merging of self and mind because people often communicate through actions as well. Mead’s also says that an individual is a product of pre-existing society. In this Mead’s says that first, we object to other people and then we object to ourselves in the result of the experiences we get from others. Theory of I and MeMead’s believes that the elf is a social process, in this, he means that things going in the mind helps to make one’s self. He says that the mind and self-are in the state of the social process.
As gestures are taken by the individuals, they also take the attitudes and reply accordingly. The theory of I and Me basically explain the same thing in which ‘Me’ is the social self and I is the response to the Me, Same like it’s a response of one person to other. In this, I is the self as subject and me as a self as an object.
Philosophy of ScienceMead’s believes that the use of science can be possible in understanding the society, the environment. He believes that we discover many things in the field of science by manipulation. We use the hypothetical objects in order to generate results thus we also achieved in generating it. Language, Play & Game Mead’s believe that human being generates their understanding of three different ways, which includes language, play, and game. In which Language allows individuals to take on the role of the other and allows people to respond to his or her own gestures in terms of the symbolized attitudes of others. Whereas during play, individuals take on the roles of other people and pretend to be those other people in order to express the expectations of significant others.
This process of role-playing is key to the generation of self-consciousness and to the general development of the self. In the last individual is required to internalize the roles of all others who are involved with him or her in the game and must comprehend the rules of the game.