AlhossinRFID group – IT DepartmentRFID for Electromagnetic Solutions Ltd Tripoli, LibyaMouna M. AlhossinRFID group – IT DepartmentRFID for Electromagnetic Solutions LtdTripoli, LibyaKarema M. AhmedRFID group – HW DepartmentRFID for Electromagnetic Solutions Ltd Tripoli, LibyaSaad M. AlhossinCommunication Eng. DepartmentDepartment, College of Electronic TechnologyTripoli, [email protected] – The paper provides an explanation of the idea of using RFID technology in the upcoming Libyan elections, explaining the difference between the technology offered and the traditional and electronic methods used in electoral processes around the world today.
The paper included the use of two innovations that would improve the performance and safety of the electoral process. One was the Smart Voting Fund and the second a new security technique for wireless harmonization techniques called (TACAT). The expected and distinct results from the above, flexibility and speed of delivery with confidentiality in the transmission of information and strong resistance to the magnetic attacks, which is usually used in the attack on RFID systems or any wireless system.Index Terms — RFID election, e-Voting, TACATA, SmartFundI. INTRODUCTIONThe first real Libyan experience of the elections was in the royal era, after the decision of the independence of Libya No. (289 of 1949 issued by the United Nations), on 19/02/19501. This was followed by periodic elections every two years, which ended on 1/09/1969, the day that the constitution of the state was suspended until the declaration of the People’s Authority in (02/03/1977) and the application of the so-called (Third World Theory)2.
Since then, the concept of elections has faded and replaced by the direct escalation style led by the country’s ruling party.On 17/02/2011 an uprising that found itself in front of a people needs much to be able to understand and absorb the political game of the elections. It was the first electoral attempt – after a break of more than 43 years.In 2012, the Libyans fought an insufficient level of awareness, which resulted in some serious flaws, even though it is a successful experience in the eyes of the international community, which did not expect a people to experience an election that was the first after a break of more than 43 years. This experience with its flaws made the way open for experienced politicians to exploit the shortcomings resulting from deliberate ignorance, which made it easier for them to simply access to power without any effort or fatigue. This is no doubt the main factor in the stumbling of the political road to advancing Libya.Now Libya is offering new elections with a new dress, and the options are more conscious than they were in 2012. But the method of elections is very primitive compared to that of developed countries.
So, we suppose to use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) election method for next Libyan voting.RFID is a wireless technology based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic effect to send and receive information with appropriate memory according to application. It is something such as technology of coding to define objects in three dimensions. It can communicate remotely in magnetic stimulation without the need to use energy sources such as batteries, as its energy is derived from the waves sent through the ether from the reader to the card. Their uses are varied and depend on three main points, which are: the environment, its appropriated frequency and the required size of memory.In the past, relying on the traditional election paper so that the voter filled out the voting form and ratification and then the next phase of the methods of coloring the voter’s finger color is difficult to hide as evidence that the voter can not vote on moreII.PAPERVOTINGFig.
1.Old Libyan Voting Systemthan one person, and then comes the final stage of the ballot paper in the fund which it is transparent and has been closed by the jury3. This method carries a large number of defects, including:• In the absence of an impartial authority, the electoral paper in its standard specifications may be replaced or claimed without any method of confirming it. Burned paper can not be identified, and in contrast, it is not possible to determine whether the paper was stolen to be used again or whether it was actually damaged by burning it.• In the absence of an adequate number of observers representing independent voters or observers, voters may be prevented from accessing electoral funds, and the funds may also be replaced by others.
• The identity of the voter may be fraudulent, paid, paid for election, and then disappear.• The dead may also participate in the electoral process by replacing them with hired persons from neighboring countries.• The geographical dimension between the High Commission and the sub-points makes it difficult to ensure the security of the electoral process. And ensure that the results are sent fairly.• The presence of observers can not determine the intent of competitors who send their customers to interfere and challenge the integrity and method of voting in the candidate’s circle.
In order to prevail against the victory of rivals.• The citizen’s lack of awareness of the seriousness of abstaining from voting makes it easy to exploit his voice by filling his form and his name and voting for an unknown person.• Plastic boxes are locked with unsecured bonds and can be replaced when damaged. This, by its very nature, facilitates the process of forgery by opening the boxes and replacing their contents in exchange for bribery and money.• The high cost of recruiting a large number of supervisors of the electoral process.III.
ELECTRONIC VOTINGOther developed countries have used the method of electronic attributions. Some of them invented special methods for themselves, such as the State of India4, 5 and Israel6, including those who follow internationally recognized methods. By adding a magnetic tape or chip as a solution to reduce counterfeiting and counterfeiting so that the computer is the crucial element to control the election process from start to finish. This method has advantages and disadvantages, it is advantageous it:• The electoral process shall be carried out only after the voter has been authenticated and identified so that his or her vital data such as fingerprinting, DNA or simplemethods can be recorded by providing secret numbers for each vote and then used during voting procedures.• The entire electoral process is filmed and documented so that it is returned in case of disagreement.• The absent or dead can not vote.• Minors may have special requirements to vote and prevent forgery by exploiting their shortcomings.• In case of abstention, the situation remains unmanaged and can not be manipulated because of vital information that can not be matched with others.
• Elimination of the problem of geographical dimension and the wide scope of elections so that the voter can vote on the Internet or via SMS messages.• Reduce costs, there is no need to be the observer is inside and outside and does not require the operation of a large number of administrators and security elements support. There is no need to exploit State buildings or rent buildings abroad for the electoral process.
However, such as there is an advantage there are defects to be invoked by the competent jurisdiction, including:• Electronic operation is subject to electronic attacks resulting from the physical impact of high voltage, which makes the existence of the potential for breakdowns.• Dependence on electric power sources may cause the electoral process to stop in some constituencies.• In the absence of integrity, guarantees of the absence of viral software are difficult.• The high probability of buying programmers for the electoral process.• The possibility of spyware attacks and non-wired hacking during wireless communication.• Copying e-cards and replacing vital data with another person’s order can happen.IV. DESCRIPTION OF THE RFID LIBYAN E?ELECTIONS1.
In 2012, a law was allocated to the Supreme National Electoral Commission to organize the register of voters at home and abroad7. Thus, 1513 electoral centers were opened to register voters in thirteen constituencies. Therefore, our proposal is designed to be compatible with the applicable laws and regulations with the same names and functions as in the previous experiment. In this way we divided the parts of the proposal into six main points as it is shown in Fig.
2 and following description:• Intelligent Electoral Fund (patent)8: o RFID-Reader o GSM-Modem o Internet service.• A computer equipped with Tag Array Chip Array Tag (TACAT) technique (patent)9:o Only works with authorized employee.o Motion sensor does not work in an environment other than the environment assigned to it. o Anti-jamming system.• Special computers (voter station) equipped with:o Touch screen. o Earphone.o RFID sub-reader with TACAT technology9. o Fingerprint reader.
o Camera. o RFID printer.• Internet services to facilitate the transmission of data and monitoring the quality of the electoral process.• GSM services to confirm the validity of data sent.2. Prepare for the elections with a permanent registration card that is renewed every electoral cycle called the electoral card. A store containing personal voter data, with a vital footprint such as fingerprint or personal photo of the voter.3.
When applying for the elections, the electoral card is used to register the candidate and issued a special card valid only for the period specified for the election program, and accordingly, the cards are distributed to observers by the voter.4. Each local or international observer or organizer of the electoral process has a logo that contains a hidden RFID tag for tracking and monitoring.5. Each candidate has a logo that contains a RFID card and is distributed to the employees in charge of advertising, so that they are in a prominent position during the work and are not allowed to do their work without it and used by the High Commission to control the outrageous abuses during competition.A. Polling centerThe polling station is the building where the electoral process takes place and contains polling stations and the polling station contains the ballot box 1. It is equipped with special sensors to protect the electoral process from burglary, theft and counterfeiting.
B. Voter Station (polling station):A place where there is a box and ballot papers and the staff supervising the Fund and located inside the polling center and where:• The voter chooses his / her choice from the touch screen by name and picture.• The voter has the right to view the biography (CV) of the elected person (voice, picture, and writing).• If the desired candidate is approved, the program requires the voter to show his / her electoral card. He is then asked to use a fingerprint to match it with what was available in database.• The program requires the voter to confirm his election by voice, image and writing.• The ballot paper is printed to be received by the voter so that it contains all private data.• The ballot paper is stamped to be ready for placement in the box.
Fig. 2. Sketch for RFID election proposal on Libyan E-Voting – 2018.Fig. 3. Smart Fund , A) Non registered card (Fund is close), B) Registered card (Fund is open).• The voter submits to the ballot box accompanied by an electoral card and a ballot paper.• Ensure that the data stored in the ballot card and the electoral card are matched with data stored at the main station, so that an audio alert will be issued in case of mismatch, and the comparison process will be carried out wirelessly and without the voter’s knowledge.
• The Smart Fund does not allow the ballot papers to access if their data are not identical to the electoral card data.• The voter shall be placed his ballot paper in the ballot box after fulfilling the conditions.• Smart Fund sends the data voting to the voter station automatically and without voter’s knowledge, and then sends another copy at the same time to: the electoral district, the High Commission through the Internet and GSM system, while keeping a fifth copy in the main office of the polling center.D. Electoral District:The Electoral Districts shall be provided with a system of issuing electoral cards and monitoring the elections and it’s included:1. Connected computer to a GSM network server and an Internet connection.
2. A mobile RFID reader for sorting.3. Fixed reader to use for issuing electoral cards and to identify the identity and contents of the Intelligent Electoral Fund that will return from the electoral process.4. Screen for monitoring the electoral process to show a copy of the surveillance screen in the High Commission.E. Display results (monitor screen):1.
The offer can be available on the websites and public screen so that it contains:• The total number of candidates and the total number of voters in each constituency.• The total number of voters decreases with each event to vote.• The percentage of voters for each candidate varies according to the immediate data of a vote, which is offset by a decrease in the number of voters.• Ease of searching the voter card number and make sure that his voice has already included the desired person.2. The results can be verified manually or technically in case of doubt or challenge the integrity of the electoral process.
3. Each electoral district has a complete copy of the election results documented by date and time.F. Monitoring and auditing:1. The system is capable of knowing the presence of equipment and tracking the movement.If the equipment is moved from its designated premises, the High Commission is notified immediately and an order not to approve the results of the electoral fund in which the incident occurred.2.
The voter can not elect more than one.3. The dead and the anonymous can not vote.4.
There is no possibility of challenging the results in malicious ways.V. CONCLUSIONThis paper presents the expected flaws in the use of preelection methods, indicating the findings of some countries interested in the development of the elections from traditional methods to electronic methods to electronic wireless, and how they were able to find solutions to some of these defects by creating special methods. The paper also described a new proposal, supported by a simple explanation of its innovations in the fields of RFID technology, with clarifying the main points of the components of the Electoral Commission and its points of contact with the proposal, which provides a solution to the violations and obstacles observed in the Libyan elections in 2012.The research team believes that the proposal presented in this paper could be one of the powerful solutions proposed to reduce the fraud expected during the Libyan electoral processes in particular and the elections of the world countries in general.
And that the next step for this work will be focused on practical application and testing by the end of 2018.ACKNOWLEDGMENTTeam work of this project grateful Mr Jamal M. Alaez for his support. Many thanks as well to RFID for Electromagnetic Solution, Ltd for helping using their workshop.REFERENCES1 S.A Abdulla, “Libyan Economy and Foreign Direct Investment” . 2017: LULU.
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