Middle East

Middle East Name: Course: Date: Middle East 1. How successful was Ottoman modernization (or Westernization)? Why? The 16th and the 17th centuries witnessed the ascent of the Ottoman Empire into one of the most modernized empires among the European nations. At the time, the extent of the empire’s modernization was depicted by the enormous technological advancement that encompassed the nation. In early 17th century, the Ottoman Empire changed itself based on the Western culture.

The Empire borrowed innovations from the West. Additionally, the assistance from foreign engineers allowed for the repair of the Empire’s aged arm systems. Westernization further gripped Ottoman with the introduction of secularized education that comprised European curricula and diplomatic political strategies through the introduction of permanent ambassadors and privy councils. Moreover, the neo-classical style was applied in the designing of buildings with stylized features. Additionally, printing houses was introduced due to the widespread authoring and publishing of novels by the public (Bickerton & Klausner, 2002). The Ottoman modernization was successful due to the influence and immigration of the Europeans into the Islam-based country.

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At the time, the Ottomans viewed European countries as developed based on economical, social and technological fields. One of the main reasons that led to successful modernization in the Empire was the acceptance of European thought by the state leaders. In the 18th century, Ahmet III and the vizier Ibrahim Pasha ordered the construction of luxurious palaces. The establishment of printing houses was also another factor that enabled widespread modernization. This is because the books employed reformist thoughts that influenced people into embracing modernization. Permanent ambassadors to the Westernized countries also influenced the success of modernization due to the observance and integration of the Western culture in the Empire as witnessed (Bickerton & Klausner, 2002). 2. How successful were the British and French as mandatory powers (whether success is defined by their putative or actual aims)? Why? By defeating the Ottomans, the British were able to control much of the Middle East area that the Ottoman Empire occupied.

As mandatory powers, the British and French, under the support of the League of Nations at the time, were granted quasi-colonial power over the previous Ottoman territories. As mandate regimes, the success of the two regimes was seen by the size of territories in which they possessed control. France acquired a mandate over the Arab country, Syria.

By obtaining Syria as one of their territories, France carved out Lebanon as a detached state with Christian majorities. Britain, on the other hand, acquired a mandate over the Middle East areas. Presently, the Middle East areas comprise the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan and Israel (Bickerton & Klausner, 2002). The British and the French attributed much of their success as mandatory powers due to the spoils of the First World War. One of the main reasons attributed to their success was the weakening of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire was one of the most formidable empires at the time controlling a considerable area in the Middle East. However, the empire weakened due to nationalist practices in different holdings in the Empire as well as the 1916 Arab Revolt.

The defeat led to control over the Ottoman area by the British. Moreover, the creation of mandates by the League of Nations after the cease of World War I prompted the victors of the war to gain power over former Ottoman and German territories. Since Ottoman territories in the Middle East were regarded as Class A Mandates, Britain and France obtained majority of the Middle Eastern region due to prior First World War agreements (Bickerton & Klausner, 2002). References Bickerton, I. J., & Klausner, C. L.

(2002). A concise history of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.