Tsar was “appointed by God” to rule as his representative on Earth. Most countries = constitutional monarchy – power shift narcolepsy’s. Russian Empire sass’s: Political, Social Grievances. Largest country in the world geographically – size equates to word power. – Concerned with frontiers and borders, protect territory; (surrounded by Turkey, Iran, China, INK) – brought into conflict with other nations. Rivalries with Nations – Major wars w. European nations (Germany xx)/Japan, America. Ethnic group -? many minorities -? Russian Orthodox majority.
Poverty: Expansionism necessary – feed huge population, obtain fertile land. Isolation no infrastructure between villages. European Affairs: Development westward = brought into contact with European affairs. Previously isolated; exposure to diplomatic system. Alliances – Great Britain and France (surround. Germany). Franco-Russian/ Triple Entente. Russia needed to expand East and South – China, Japan and Korea. Secure port facilities (did not freeze); natural resources. Social Grievances: Working Class Anger Rapid industrial grog. The ended in 1897 – dropped to 1% by 1901 – Unemployment; wage cuts. Demanded better working conditions – based on new found intellect and ability to read – Army recruits returning with level of iterate. Urban workers demanded (becoming better organized): Basic civil rights. Shorter working day. Improved living conditions – unsafe. Right to organism unions and strikes – banned since 1874. – Protection (unions). Political Grievances: Changing society – growing urban working class – Tsar oblivious to changes.
Political opposition to the Tsar was expressed in three types of ideology: Liberalism: Politics and Civil Rights of Ordinary People. Free and fair elections – Constitutional Monarchy – (Survival of Russian Royal Family). Strong parliament. Marxism (Socialism): Sharing Russian’s wealth – Communism. Revolution leonine if necessary. People govern themselves (No Tsar) – Classless society. Democracy: Concerned with free and fair elections. Russo-Japanese War Why did Russia go to War with Japan? Both countries regarded themselves as world powers – expansionism.
End of 19th Century = competition between major powers to acquire land: United Kingdom (Largest – India, Burma, Pakistan, Asia, Africa) France (Africa) Germany Belgium (Congo) Japan -? wanted to be a world power therefore needed to colonies land. *Economic power on par with many European countries. Far East = logical area of expansion for Russia -? trans-Siberian railway. Allotting Peninsula: Strategically important -? port Arthur. Captured by Japanese (1 895); retaken by Russia, France and Germany. Site of most fighting in the war – ground fighting.
Battle of Tsunami: Decisive naval battle – Russian naval fleet was intercepted and destroyed by the Japanese navy. Why did Russia lose War? Arrogance – underestimated ability of Japan. Poor military planning and Strategy; Poor quality and low morale Of soldiers. Japanese readiness, skills and spirit – based on German structure + samurai influence. Bloody Sunday 1905 9th January 1 905: Factory and mill workers strike (1 50,000 people) – Pitiful in SST. Petersburg. Demonstrators did not oppose monarchy. About 1 000 demonstrators were shot dead – Tsar knew nothing of it.
Followed by period of great unrest – half a million workers on strike – cripples economy. Father George Capon: Led demonstration to the Tsar -? present petition requesting basic civil rights intellectual; ability to verbalism requests of workers. After massacre fled to Switzerland and later UK making contact with Lenin (left-wing). Joined Socialist Revolutionary Party who later killed him – suspected of being double agent. Outcomes of Massacre: 400,000 people went on strike – crippling economy. Transport system stopped working. Grand Duke Surges, Tsars uncle, murdered. 905 Revolution 1905 Revolution: To what extent could this be considered a revolution? Government not overthrown – Further 12 years before Royal Family overthrown. Lost affection of Russian people -Called into question the Tsarist system for first time. Strikes spreading throughout Russia – workers formed soviets (UN ions). Demanded better working conditions -? co-ordinate major strikes crippling Russian Opposition not united. October Manifesto 1905 Tsars formal response to 1 905 Revolution; brief, vague document -? promised freedom of speech, assembly and association. Introduction of Dumb or
Parliament -? Universal male suffrage (voting). Significance: Admission Tsar was no longer autocrat (divine ruler from above). Weakness: Failed to address; poverty, low wages and poor working conditions; Dumb rubber stamp parliament. Dumb (Parliament): Mass Participation: Voting rights for men. Law: All laws to be confirmed by Dumb. People under false impression they were involved in politics. Large concession by Royal Family to even let people think they had element of power in politics. Significance of Dumb: 1st time parliament created in Russian history – first alternative source of authority.
Failed because not given enough power. Dissolved because: Limited power of Tsar. Transfer of land to peasants. Free education. Progressive tax system – “The more you earn, the more you par – previously no monetary tax. Equality before the law. Political, Social and Economic Grievances in Early Twentieth-Century Russia Peter Storyline (Premier) Appointed 1906. Focus on agricultural reform, cancellation of farm debt, did not address poverty or industrial reforms. Crushed all opposition – 2,500+ executed, 60,000 imprisoned. “Cytolysis’s Neckties” REFORMS Farm Reforms: Address peasant backwardness.
Annulment of outstanding loans, peasants allowed to leave commune, encouraged to consolidate land holdings. Effective? – WWW intervened + assassinated. Land Reforms: Royal and government land could be purchased by peasants. Land prices consistent with value and buying power of farmer. 1913; mm peasants farming for themselves, mm accepted gob. Offer to farm in Siberia Social Reforms: Aid offered to insure peasants from sickness, mutilation, old age. Peasants exempt from new taxes. Religious freedom granted. Compulsory primary education – doubled in size. Industrial Reforms: Night and underground labor banned for children, teenagers, and women.
Working day shortened. Role of WWW in Fall of Tsarist Regime Russia pre-1 91 g: Opposition to Nicholas had declined – brutally crushed. Reduction of national debt; large, wealthy commercial class; peasants owned land. Large industrial workforce. Economic growth 6% pa. H forever: No constitutional monarchy created. Tsar’s reinforcement of autocratic power ruined hopes for more political freedom. Why did Russia go to War? Mutual protection treaty -? international obligations. Contribution to End of Romano Dynasty: 191 7 Revolution can be attributed to: War weariness amongst population. Decline of morale in army.