New pollution green vehicles has become a basic

                                                       New Energy Vehicle – ElectricAlbin Tomy      Yuhao Ren    HancongCheng     17F   Manufacturing Process-01 MENG1019-17F-12067Professor John McGrathWednesday January 10, 2018   TABLEOF CONTENTINTRODUCTIONFEATURESCOMPONENTSBATTERIESUSED IN ELECTRIC CARSBYDENGINEERINGMATERIALS USED IN MANUFACTURINGHEATTREATMENT PROCESSAnnealingHomogenizingQuenchingNormalizingKEYMANUFACTURING PROCESS – HIGH LEVELMANUFACTURINGPROCESSStamping processWelding processResistancespot weldingResistanceseam weldingFrictionweldingLaserbeam weldingPainting processAssembly process ADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC CAR MANUFACTURINGDISADVANTAGES OF ELECTRIC CARMANUFACTURINGSPECIALIZED SKILLS REQUIRED BYMANUFACTURING TEAM MEMBERPRESENT TECHNOLOGIES USED IN ELECTRICCAR MANUFACTURINGFUTURE TECHNOLOGIES USED IN ELECTRICCAR MANUFACTURINGCONCLUSIONREFERENCE INTRODUCTIONNew energy cars have beendeveloped in recent years. With the development of society, the progress ofscience and technology, the car already is a must for every family in the dailylife. But the growth of cars has resulted in the reduction of oil resources inthe world and the destruction of the environment.

Therefore, the search forpollution-free or low pollution green vehicles has become a basic nationalpolicy of all countries. The development of new energy vehicles is an effectiveway to solve the problems of energy and environmental protection in the worldand is the inevitable choice for the sustainable development of world’sautomobile industry. In today’s world, there are two new energyvehicles are the most popular, one is China’s BYD, the other is the UnitedStates’ Tesla.FEATURESThere are some new things in the new energyvehicle:1. The car body ismade of high strength composite material. The composite material is made byaluminum, carbon fiber (kind of polymers), and ceramic material.

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Thesematerials are able to make car’s weight light, and the structure of car isstrong.2. AI driving.

Ifyou feel too tired to drive, you can rest assured of using AI driving. Thereare more than 100 microcomputers in the car, 360 degrees around the car. Thesemicrocomputers like radar, they are able to sense the changes around the car.            3. Charging. This car is usingelectric power. It’s more environmental, and save money.

We’ll send a chargingdevice to you, it is made by C60 (a superconducting material). Charging the caronly a few seconds.COMPONENTS Usually, there are two types of batteries areused in car.

The primary battery cells have a limited life time cycle. Howeverthe secondary batteries used in the electric vehicles are reusable, which makesthem more profitable when compare to other ones. This kind of batteries arefound in the center of the car, which helps to balance the overall weight ofthe vehicle. The secondary rechargeable batteries are also known as “T-shapedbatteries” due to the place where it is situated.Normallythe batteries for the electric cars are made using the combination of variousmetals such as nickel – zinc, nickel –iron, lead-acid and zinc- chloride. The40% overall weight of the vehicle contains the electric propulsion system andthe secondary battery. There are two power plants in the hybrid automobile,which perform according to the conditions.

In this hybrid automobile, itcontains a combination of internal combustion and electric engine. BATTERY USED INELECTRIC VEHICLEThe batteries of new energy vehicles are the most important part of new energy vehicles. BYD and Tesla batteries are not the same. Tesla: The battery cathode material as a naming way, ternary lithium battery called ternary polymer lithium battery.

Ternary polymer lithium battery refers to the cathode material using lithium nickel cobalt lithium manganese (Li (NiCoMn) O2) ternary cathode material, ternary composite cathode material precursor products, nickel salts, cobalt salts, manganese salts As raw materials, the proportion of nickel, cobalt and manganese inside can be adjusted according to actual needs, ternary material as the positive battery lithium cobalt oxide batteries with high safety, but the voltage is too low.(Ternary polymer lithium battery and other electronic products used in laptops, after being used in the field of electric vehicles.)BYD               BYD new energy vehicles that is the technology of mature lithium iron phosphate battery. Lithium iron phosphate batteries, lithium iron phosphate is used as the cathode material of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion battery cathode materials are mainly lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese oxide, lithium nickel oxide, ternary materials, such as lithium iron phosphate. Among them, lithium cobalt oxide is the most cathode material used by most lithium-ion batteries.

Developed iron-powered batteries, a driving force for electric vehicles. Lithium iron phosphate battery in the safety performance and dynamic performance have great protection and promotion, 0 to 100km / h acceleration time of about 8 seconds, a charge of driving range of 300Km to 400Km above. The lithium iron phosphate crystals P-O bond solid, difficult to break down, even at high temperatures or overcharge will not be the same as lithium cobalt oxide structure collapse heat or the formation of strong oxidizing substances, so have good safety.

Some reports pointed out that in practice, acupuncture or short-circuit test found that a small part of the sample combustion phenomenon, but did not appear an example of an explosion, and overcharge test using its own discharge voltage is much higher than several times the high-voltage charge found that there are still Explosion phenomenon.               Nevertheless, its overcharge safety compared to ordinary liquid electrolyte lithium cobalt oxide battery, has greatly improved. Long-life lead-acid battery cycle life of about 300 times, the highest will be 500 times, and lithium iron phosphate battery life cycle up to 2000 times the standard charge (5 hours) use, up to 2000 times. The same quality of lead-acid batteries is “a new six months, the first half of six months, maintenance and six months,” up to 1 to 1.5 years, and lithium iron phosphate batteries in the same conditions, the theoretical life expectancy will reach 7 to 8 years.

Lithium iron phosphate peak heat up to 350 ºC -500 ºC and lithium manganese oxide and lithium cobalt oxide only around 200 ºC wide operating temperature range. (-20 ºC – +75 ºC), high temperature characteristics of lithium iron phosphate peak heat up to 350 ºC -500 ºC and lithium manganese oxide and lithium cobalt oxide only around 200 ºC. It has a larger capacity than ordinary batteries (lead-acid, etc.).

Lithium iron phosphate battery rechargeable battery is often in full condition, the capacity will quickly lower than the rated capacity value, a phenomenon called memory effect. Like nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium batteries exist memory, and lithium iron phosphate batteries without this phenomenon, no matter what the state of the battery can be used with the charge without having to put the first recharge.          The capacity of the same size lithium iron phosphate battery size is 2/3 of the volume of lead-acid batteries, the weight of lead-acid batteries 1/3. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are generally considered to contain no heavy metals and rare metals (nickel-metal hydride batteries need rare metals), non-toxic (SGS certification passed), pollution-free, in line with European RoHS regulations for the absolute green battery certificate.

Lithium iron phosphate batteries also have shortcomings: for example, low-temperature performance is poor, the cathode material tap density is small, the capacity of lithium iron phosphate batteries larger than lithium-ion batteries such as lithium-ion batteries, and so the micro-batteries do not have the advantage. When used in power batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries, like other batteries, need to face the battery consistency issues. ENGINEERINGMATERIALS USED IN MANUFACTURINGThemanufacturing process of electric cars is a combination of various rawmaterials to produce the result. The main material used to build car’s skeletonnamed ‘Space Frame’ is Aluminum. One of the advantage of Aluminum metal islight weight. An impact resistant plastic is used to make the main body of thevehicle, which can be recycled in the future.

Moreover, the heart of thesteering wheel and seat frames are made using magnesium, also a lightweightmetal.The traction or motor system is made using a combination of plastic and metal. The tires used in the electric cars are differ from the gasoline cars. They are designed to avoid higher pressure, which helps to conserve the energy and decrease the resistance.

In order to prevent from overheating, the windshield is made up of solar glass.HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSESInorder to produce reliable quality materials, it is important to select suitableheat treatment method for specific steel types and grades. The types of heattreatment used for the manufacturing of electric car are annealing,homogenizing, normalizing, quenching and precipitation etc.

AnnealingThistreatment is mainly used to stabilize the aluminum, which is dislocated anddistorted. This resulted for the tendency to revert. The purpose areeliminatory residual stress and softening of the metal. General component usedin annealing is forged blanks.HomogenizingItis another type of heat treatment generally has more functions according to thealloy metals. Homogenizing is also known as ‘preheating processes’.

The mainprinciple of homogenizing in the manufacturing of electric car is to increasethe workability.QuenchingTheprinciple of Quenching heat treatment is to balance the hardness for toughnessand strength. It is also considered as the most critical process of the heat treatment.In this method, ‘critical control range’, which is based ondiffusion-controlled reactions. The typical componentsUsedfor quenching are arms, fasteners and rods.

NormalizingLike most of the heat treatment, it is used in the manufacturing of electric cars to reduce the hardness for machining. As a result, it save time and cost for process. The primary purpose is to control the microstructure and decrease the hardness for machining.KEYMANUFACTURING PROCESS – HIGH LEVELSheet metal stampingClosure subassemblyBody in white assemblyPaint shopBody assemblyFinal assemblyPowertrain and chases fittingInspection and testing MANUFACTURING PROCESSThefirst: stamping process.Stampingis one of the key operation in the manufacturing process of electric cars.usually stamping is done by using sheet metals to create body panels, floorpans, hoods, doors and other partsof the vehicle. It is mostly automated process, where machines or robotschanges the process and break down the metal sheets as blanks. The mainstamping process operations use in manufacturing the electric cars are;Blanking-separating sheet metals into various sheets Trimming-removing the unnecessary metal parts Stamping– changing the flat metal sheet into shape of product Piercing– creating useful holes in the metal partFlanging-finishing the edges of the part by foldingThegoal is to produce a variety of body stamping parts.

The following is a neatlystacked roll of car special steel, the thickness of 1.0mm to 1.2mm range. Therewill be a magical change to the soil of steel after the process. First of all,the entire volume of steel must be cut into pieces of different sizes, sorted,in order to their different uses. Then the materials will assigned to thevarious presses.

The flat steel is reshaped by a press and pressed into variouspress parts on the body. When good front fenders, press-molded vehicle bodyworksand other parts have been done, they will sent to the welding shop to the nextprocess.Thesecond: welding process.Nowthe goal is to weld various body stamping parts into the finished body. In thewelding shop, a variety of body parts are brought together, to be welding.After each welding is completed, the worker will carefully check the propertyof each welding parts.

BYD’s body welding also use industrial robots, whichgreatly improves efficiency and reduces the risk of errors. When body weldingis completed, workers still need further checking on welding parts. Afterconfirming that there is no problem with the parts, the white body will be sentto the painting shop for the next process.The most commonly usedwelding technique in manufacturing of electric car are;ResistanceSpot welding(Resource: ijmer.com)It is considered as theprinciple method to join the body components. Normally, the formation happenswhen the heat is produced due to the resistance of metal part to the flow ofcurrent and pressure.

Also, it is estimated that around 4000-4500 welding spotswill be in the steel body of a car. The main drawback of resistance spot weldingis the operation is not continuous. It is only applicable for overlapped workpieces.ResistanceSeam Welding(Resource: ijmer.com)In this type ofresistance welding, it can overcome the drawbacks of spot welding. Seam weldingperforms equally on continuous metal parts and overlapped metal parts. One ofthe main advantage of this operation is its speed. An AC power supply is givento two electrode wheels, where work piece is passed through in between thewheels.

FrictionWelding(Resource: ijmer.com)In friction welding, heatfor the welding is produced by the mechanical motion of the work pieces. Inthis process, one metal piece is rotated opposite to the other piece under highpressure. At some point, the operation reach specific temperature and partswill be welded. Frictional welding is mainly used to produce pistons rods,engine valves, steering columns, half shafts, axle cases etc. This operationcan be adjusted by changing the pressure, time and rotational speed.

Laserbeam Welding(Resource: ijmer.com) Dueto the competition in manufacturing field, laser beam welding gainedpopularity. It has a lot of advantages than the other welding techniques usedin manufacturing. In this operation, laser beam is focused on the metal sheetjoints. Generally, metal sheets showing the thickness between 0.2 mm to 6mm iswelded using laser. It is operated within the power range of 3kW to 5kW.

Thelaser beam is focused using copper mirrors suited in front of the system.Additionally, it is fully automated process with non-contact. This type ofwelding is mainly used for higher number of automotive production.  Third:Painting process.Tomake a beautiful appearance to the body part, workers need to paint the parts.The assembled body is lifted to the paint shop and electrophoresis everywhereto protect the part against rust. When the anti-rust treatment is completed,the workers also have to clean the body surface and find any flaws, to preparefor the next painting step.

As the paint contains a lot of toxic substances andworkers will waste some of the painting materials, the BYD spray paintingprocess has been completed by a robot. At this point, the body painting processis over, the painted body will be sent to the final assembly workshop for thefinal process. Fourth:Assembly process. Purpose:The various parts of the body, chassis and interior assembled together to forma complete car.

BYD’s girder required a steering system and other components. Theninstalls the vehicle suspension rod and other components. Next installing thespare tire bracket. After that, installing the rear axle housing.

After thebridge is installed, installs a coil spring on it. Next is the double wishbonesuspension before installation. Next is installing the battery. Then, installsfront shock absorbers and brake discs. Then, install the engine and transmission.

Installs door seals and other interior parts. Installs the back door lock and columninterior decoration. Installs engine compartment sound insulation firewall.

Installs the vehicle control circuit, embedded wiring harness on the bottomplate, and installs the instrument panel assembly. Installs the acoustic panel,door and seat belt. In the trench to the vehicle’s chassis and body with asolid combination. Next, installs some electrical controls on the dashboard, ahandbrake and a CD player. Installs rear seats, steering wheel and otherinterior trim. Installs the front door core board.

Installs the front armrestbox. Installs the front seats.ADVANTAGESOF ELECTRIC CAR MANUFACTURINGEmissionElectriccars are well- known for the advantages, when compare to the normal ones. Theyare usually known as ‘Green Cars’, due to the zero emission of carbon dioxide(CO2) gas.

Carbon diode gas is considered as one of the main reasonbehind air pollution. EfficientTheelectric cars are more efficient than gasoline cars, from various studies, itis clear that electric cars are 80% efficient in the performance. On the otherhand, gasoline cars release major percentage as useless heat energy, itresulted in reducing the efficiency in normal cars. For instance, ‘Tesla’, oneof the top brand in electric car market claims that it cost around only 1000 $for thirty thousand running. But for the same distance, it costs five times thenormal cost for the gasoline cars.

MaintenanceMaintenanceis one of the major problems fixed in the car manufacturing sector. Thecustomer has to spend a lot of money in the day to day maintenance for the car.Electric cars are operated by using electrically generated engines.as a result,customer don’t need to lubricate the engines.Less noise pollutionAdditionally,they create less noise pollution because the carbide used on electric cars arequitter than the gasoline gas. This helps them to be a better option for a longdistance with high acceleration.

DISADVANTAGESOF ELECTRIC CAR MANUFACTURINGLong recharge timeNormally,for gasoline cars, it takes just few minutes to fill the fuel. But for electriccars it takes 4-6 hrs. to complete the charging process.Battery replacementBatteryis one of the prime component the electric cars.it should be replacedperiodically of 3-10 hours, which might be an extra burden for the customer.Short driving distanceOneof the limitation is the range of driving distance. Basically, a customer candrive an electric car around 100 miles with full charging. Therefore, they needto charge the car for future years.

it might be difficult for long distancetravel.SPECIALIZEDSKILLS REQUIRED BY MANUFACTURING TEAM MEMBERInorder to manufacture the electric car team members, require some specific skills.They must know how to use computer aided design packages. Also, they shouldhave the ability to solve the engineering problem involving mechanical, electrical,hydraulic, thermodynamic or pragmatic principle. Moreover, members will bepreparing the expenses.

Various kinds of materials, reports and estimated timeto produce the parts. Furthermore, they need to find the mechanical failuresand unexpected damages happen in the manufacturing process. The effective timemanagement and organization help to produce the part more accurately, it isreally a fast-pashed work environment. Therefore, team member may work ontraditional assembly line, which is called lean manufacturing system. From all this,it is clear that team members should have various multitasking skills.PRESENTTECHNOLOGIES USED IN ELECTRIC CAR MANUFACTURINGWhenwe talking about cars, we would say gasoline cars at the beginning. As timegoes by, new energy vehicles are becoming reality, especially electric cars.

Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Model S, 3 and X and many other electric cars, some ofthem are hybrid, too. However, will electric cars last long and becoming acheaper and better kind of vehicle rather than gasoline cars? Thefirst factor of electric vehicle is their batteries. Prices are the importantpart of the whole things.

From what specialists said, prices of batteries arebecoming cheaper and cheaper, “Battery prices are headed below the magic $150per kilowatt-hour in the next decade” (Hwang, 2016). Due to rapidly fall of theprices of electric vehicles’ batteries, factories are investing more and morekinds of electric vehicles to make sure when electric vehicles enter the marketwide like normal gasoline cars, they can earn more and win this price match.When the price of batteries been decreased, the next problem of electricvehicles is the range. Differ from gasoline vehicles, electric vehicles needmore time to charge and more times to charge than gasoline vehicles if theyboth travel the same distance. Nowadays, electric vehicles can travel more than200 miles (Tesla Model S) and the standard 75D costs $96650, which is far moremoney than buying a Honda Accord hybrid. Even for the new Tesla Model 3, itcosts almost the same as Honda Accord. Thus it cannot use free Teslasupercharger, the price is still a little bit high at a standard vehicle level.

Thenext thing is the charging. According to Tesla, they provide charging stationsin plazas and in underground parking lots, or costumers could purchase adaptersfor charging. Both of them need to pay extra money, which is cheaper thangasoline, exactly. Use charging station would provide electric in high voltageand half price of the same distance which gasoline can drive. FUTURETECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRIC CAR MANUFACTURINGToenlarge the mileage the electric vehicles could drive, solving batteries is themost important part. Changing materials to make sure the battery can store moreelectricity for long range drive. “Range is an important issue because so-called”range anxiety” is a major factor limiting public acceptance of electric vehicles.

People are afraid they won’t be able to travel very far orthat they’ll get stuck on the side of the road” (Shipman, 2016). As a result,Matt Shipman, who posted researches of developing electric vehicles’ battery byresearchers at North Carolina State University. It is a new, smaller, lighterand more efficient type of battery. If this kind of battery would been sell onmarket, the efficiency of electric and hybrid vehicles will increase, whichmeans more mileage (and cheaper).

And researches are using silicon carbide(SiC) to develop the components of battery. “Oursilicon carbide prototype inverter can transfer 99 percent of energy to themotor, which is about two percent higher than the best silicon-based invertersunder normal conditions” (Shipman, 2016), said Iqbal Husain, he also comments,”Equally important, the silicon carbide inverters can be smaller and lighterthan their silicon counterparts, further improving the range of electricvehicles” (Shipman, 2016). For energy saving, scientists and autoworkerscan create a flow, which can not only save electricity from moving wheels, butalso restore the electricity flowed in the engine or other machines usedelectricity, back into the battery, when engine stops. “‘Instead of refiningpetroleum, the refiners would reprocess spend electrolytes and instead ofdispensing gas, the fueling stations would dispense a water and ethanol ormethanol solution as fluid electrolytes to power vehicles,’ Cushman said. ‘Userswould be able to drop off the spend electrolytes at gas stations, which wouldthen be sent in bulk to solar farms, wind turbine installations orhydroelectric plants for reconstitution or re-charging into the viableelectrolyte and reused many times.

CONCLUSIONIt is believedthat our technology could be nearly ‘drop-in’ ready for most of the undergroundpiping system, rail and truck delivery system, gas station and refineries”(Purdue University 2017). This kind of fluid will be reused in a solar farm orhydroelectric plant for re-charging. This is convenient and saved more energyon charging and recharging energy into the fluid. And to say more, with thiskind of fluid, battery would be protected and maintained to last longer. In summary, thereare advantages and disadvantages to electric vehicle.

EV is still in developingprocess, waiting scientists and automakers to replace its weakness, to become alonger lasting, more environmental friendly, cheaper, safer, and lighter and akind of vehicle full of high technology.