Frederick Wilhelm Nietzsche has been the most talked about mind and philosopher in history. Even when he had died over a hundred old ages already. his thoughts continued to be controversial up to this clip. As a affair of fact. non merely his thoughts persisted but besides has influenced the hereafter thoughts and ideas of the Nazis.
postmodernists. socialists. women’s rightists. existential philosophers. queer-theorists.
and fans of physical civilization. However. this is non true when he was still alive. As a affair of fact.
all his life-time he has been mostly ignored and misunderstood ( Elborough. 2001 ) .When he was still alive. his books and monographs hardly covered the cost of publishing because of deficiency of gross revenues and grosss ( Salome and Mandel. 2001 ) .
In add-on to this. there has besides been a contention with respects the reading of his plants. For one. his sister Elizabeth is said to hold thwarted his original Hagiographas to give manner for her ain unsavoury positions to back up National Socialism. Second. his alone manner of authorship and conveying his thoughts are polemical.
contradictory. opprobrious. violative. ironical. and really witty. Another ground is that he enjoys having challenges and arguments so he ne’er provides for decisions.In general. he is a mind abhors categorizations and reassuring replies.
Even when his reviews of faith. scientific discipline. and morality made us understand how is it being a homo. all his plants were a contemplation of his disdain of the modern universe. As a affair of fact.
it is said that he has spent most of his life hankering to hold lived during Ancient Greeks or at least desiring to animate such a universe ( Elborough. 2001 ) . Early Childhood and Youth He was born on the 15th of October 1844. His birthday was by the way the same birthday as that of the Prussian King Frederick William IV from whom his name came Friedrich came from.His male parent was a Lutheran curate and a instructor. His household together with his sister Elizabeth and brother Ludwig resided Rocken small town. Saxony near Leipzig. The household is chiefly composed of reverends.
As a affair of fact. his gramps was awarded for his work entitled Gamaliel. a defence of Christianity. Everybody in the household hoped that he is traveling to follow their footfalls but this did non go on.
Their hope ended when his male parent died all of a sudden out a disease known to their clip as “softening of the brain” . After his male parent died. his immature brother Ludwig besides died at a really immature age ( Elborough. 2001 ) .The household moved to Naumburg where he lived with his female parent. sister Elizabeth. grandma.
and two aunties. As a immature male child. he is described as an affectionate henpecked immature adult male. His favourite avocation was to read the Bible. to compose verse forms and vocals. and execute self-penned dramas. It can besides be noted that he is truly close to her sister that they even portion a sleeping room until Nietzsche was twelve.
At school. he was called by his classmates and friends as “little minister” . When he was 14. he won a scholarship to go to a esteemed embarkation school.He found school at the beginning because it was the epoch of reformation where everybody should take instruction every earnestly. Students were subject in the most Spartan sense of the word such as waking up at the bitty hr of 4 am to 8m merely to analyze.
However. he still proved to be as the star student particularly in the classics. Furthermore.
Nietzsche’s creativeness has non been put to no usage because he and few of his friends in the Pforta formed a literary and musical society where the they could discourse. poesy. and art to each other.During this clip. it could already be observed that he already doubted his religion ( Elborough. 2001 ) . However.
there was a clip in the immature Nietzsche’s life that he began to arise because of excessively much emphasis and force per unit area from school. It is said that he got infatuated with one of his sister’s friends. made friends with the bad crowd.
and started out imbibing boulder clay midnight. At this point in clip. he has already abandoned the impression of being a reverend even after he went to the University of Bonn to major in divinity and linguistics.
It is believed that he merely pursued divinity because it was the want of his female parent and his sister. The old ages that followed witnessed a changed Nietzsche. During his old ages in the university. when he went back to their place for Easter vacation. he refused to go to the services. He besides confessed that he will no longer be analyzing divinity. When he was compelled by his sister. he wrote her “If you want peace of head and felicity.
so have faith ; if you want to be a adherent of truth. so hunt. ” After this. he so left Bonn and pursued linguistics at the University of Leipzig ( Elborough. 2001 ) .His Influences Nietzsche craved for a different sort of rational action and escapade even before he was in Pforta and University of Bonn. He was foremost immersed in theological and philosophical system in order to get the hang it. But that does non stop at that place.
after that gestation period ; he would shortly arise with it. He would subsequently on prosecute what he called “convention-defying search” for beauty. the good. and truth” even when his female parent kept on take a firm standing to give his bosom to God and to abandon his secular wisdom because it is merely God who can give him all the satisfaction that he wanted in his life.When he was in the University of Leipzig. his professor Friedrich Ritschl suggested that they organize a philological society where they could print monographs on their researches. He foremost wrote a transmittal of text by Greek oligarch Theognis of the sixth century. Nietzsche admired Theognis because of elitism.
The Grecian author upheld the ethical motives of the swayers as opposed to the common mans. Because of this. he perpetrated his readings and ideas with more Grecian influences such as Grecian play. doctrine. and civilization. This helped him in socking the Judeo-christian tradition of prefering the common mans alternatively of the leaders.
He thought that “Christianity under the influence of Judaism fostered a slave outlook and timidness. while pagan religion with its maestro outlook fostered strength and strength of life ( Salome and Mandel. 2001 ) .
As a affair of fact. it could be said that Nietzsche for the most portion admired the incredulity. pessimism. and example of the Grecian civilization. His review of modernness is profoundly rooted on his surveies on antiquity. He argued that serious scholarship on the Greeks would counter the 19th century life and civilization because the Greeks were different and unusual from the people of today and of the hereafter.For case.
he compared the Greek chorus to theatre audiences of modern Europe during that clip and observed as important difference. The Greeks did non hold the “noble simplicity” so that modern people can ne’er merely copy the Greeks in that sense. The Grecian civilization harmonizing to him is full of atrocity and force which makes it so different to the modern universe. He acknowledged that because of this the Greeks were psychologically healthier and emotionally stronger than the modern people ( Wilkerson. 2006 ) .When he left the University of Bonn to follow the footfalls of his linguistics professor Albrecht Ritschl. he discovered a new doctrine in the book The World as Will and Representation by Arthur Schopenhauer. He admired his somberness and inexorable mentality of the universe.
His doctrine embraced metaphysical conventions like that of Immanuel Kant. This is the impression that the mundane universe is merely an ideal representation and a creative activity of the human head which is different from the universe in itself. Unlike the dreamers. Schopenhauer did non abandon Kant’s pessimism.He stressed that because worlds have a will to populate. we strive to make a universe that will function our aspirations even when the universe that we create is the antonym of what the universe is in world. In other words.
it is merely through aesthetic contemplation that we are able to get away the awful world of the universe. For case. for Schopenhauer. the noblest signifier of art is tragedy because it gives us awareness into the susceptibleness of our nature.
which is considered to be our true nature ( Elborough. 2001 ) . His Works He continued his surveies and researches and became a companion of Professor Ritschl.With his recommendation. he was appointed as a professor in classical linguistics in the University of Basel. He was gone for a small spot because of wellness jobs.
When he went back. he was busy with talks on Grecian lessons. He was besides really busy composing books despite the continuity of megrim concerns and purging ( Kauffman. 1975 ) . His first book published was The Birth of Tragedy that emphasizes his esteem of the Ancient Greek civilisation and civilization. It was dedicated to Richard Wagner which Nietzsche adored so much.Even when it was branded as a work of linguistics. it was Nietzsche’s purpose to go forth linguistics in favour of an effort to work out German civilization through the influence of the Grecian civilization.
It is an effort to really reply the inquiry: “how were we to confirm life? ” In this book. he reiterated the thought of Schopenhauer that it is merely through the great aesthetic plants that we can be cognizant of ourselves as portion of a metaphysical integrity ( Elborough. 2001 ) . His following book was called Prematurely Meditations or Thoughts Out of Season.
In the first essay of this book. he attacked David Strauss on his authorship of abandoning his religion in favour of Darwinism.Even when their thoughts on Christianity were non that different.
he was enraged because Strauss failed to hold on the true significance of Atheism. The 2nd essay on the book is on his esteem and satisfaction to his wise man Schopenhauer. He said that he admire him because he is a adult male with rational bravery that could reject the conventional academic community during his clip ( Elborough. 2001 ) . The following book that marks the involvement of Nietzsche in scientific discipline was Human All Too Human.
This book is dedicated to the Gallic naturalist Voltaire and was influenced by the psychologist Paul Ree.In this book. Nietzsche reasserted Kant’s position that the universe is merely a societal concept in the head of people. The true nature of the universe will stay to be unknowable. Furthermore. the construct of morality being built-in in world or being determinable by world is a error. The thought of good and immoralities are non God-given ageless truths but merely human innovation. Morality can non be cosmopolitan to all human existences.
It varies from one civilization to another. one person to another and one epoch to another. For case. Ancient Greeks consider being strong every bit good while Christian civilizations consider meekness as such ( Elborough. 2001 ) .After these plants. he has written many more such as The Dawn of the Day and The Joyful Wisdom. The former is the first that is said to hold revealed his existent personality and the latter is said to be written during the happiest periods in his life.
In these books are Nietzsche’s concluding philosophical mentality in life full with love. life. and energy.
Because it yielded excessively small response. he was defeated and retired to loneliness and solitude. During this clip. he wrote Thus Spake Zarathustra which was to be considered as the greatest of his plants ( Ludovici 2008 ) . God is Dead as His Celebrated LineThe Gay Science is one of the most singular books that paved the manner for Nietzsche’s most of import thoughts to be published. It is said to hold bracketed the two most celebrated books he has written Thus Spake Zarathustra and Beyond Good and Evil. It is written in an axiomatic manner that covered assorted topics.
It an besides be said that among the books that he has written. The Gay Science is the most personal one which means that for the most portion it is about his life ( Nietzsche et al. 2001 ) . The book has two chief statements that are up to now really influential to minds and philosophers.First would be the thought of ageless return which is already mentioned in his work Therefore Spake Zarathustra. He posed the most baleful inquiry that one could of all time inquire oneself. “What would you believe if a devil told you that everything in life would repeat over and over once more everlastingly? How would you reply the inquiry ( Nietzsche et al. 2001 ) .
” Nietzsche said that this thought would regulate all our actions. It is someway a trial to 1s ability to get the better of the world’s nonsense. He asserted that there is no belief that could warrant the fortunes of the universe.Everything is but a chance of being crushed to consciousness of the representation or the deceit of the universe. whatever it is.
He said that the trial if one is in his/her full consciousness is the ability to state “yes” to the impression that everything happens all over once more including hurting. inhuman treatment. humiliation. .
pettiness. emptiness. and ugliness ( Nietzsche et al. 2001 ) . Second is his parable about the Madman and the celebrated line of “God is dead” . It is a narrative set in a crowded market topographic point where a lunatic with a lamp arrives.
He was inquiring everyone where God has gone.After non having any reply. he declared: : I seek God! I seek God! … Whither is God? … I will state you. We have killed him- you and I. All of us are his liquidators.
But how did we make this? … . Who gave us the sponge to pass over away the full horizon/ … God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him… There has ne’er been a greater title ; and whoever is born after us – for the interest of this title he will belong to a higher history than all history hitherto ( qtd in Schacht.
1985. 119 ) . Furthermore he said: How shall we soothe ourselves. the liquidators of all liquidators? What washoliest and mightiest of all that the universe has yet owned has bled to decease under our knives: who will pass over this blood of us? What H2O is at that place for us to clean ourselves? What festivals of expiation. what sacred games shall we have to contrive? Is non the illustriousness of this title excessively great for us? Must we ourselves non go Gods merely to look worthy of it? ( qtd in Solomon et Al.
2000. 95 ) . Majority of the people in the market topographic point did non believe in the being of God so they merely look at him in amazement and in apathy. As a affair of fact. they mocked him for they think of themselves as excessively modern to really believe about God.Because of this the lunatic threw is lamp into the land and left. While on his manner to go forth he said that.
“I have come excessively early… my clip is non yet… This title is still more distant from them than the most distant stars- and yet they have done it themselves ( Elborough. 2001. 37 ) . ” This transition suggests Nietzsche’s chief concern on the nature of the world’s nonsense. He emphasized his sentiments and uncertainties towards the claims of scientific discipline as a replacing of God in maintaining all the horrors and uncertainnesss of life at bay. Not merely that. he besides recognized the danger of God being replaced with scientific discipline.
Specifically. the crowd that does non believe in God in the parable represents the scientists. Despite their incredulity. they still think and act as if God exists. In add-on.
Nietzsche besides feels that the Utilitarians who think that scientific discipline alongside morality will give work forces all the pleasance possible are likewise guilty of replacing God with scientific discipline. For Nietzsche. scientific discipline merely like faith without a God is barren of absolute value.
Universal Torahs hence do non hold a concrete land. All they have done is merely to borrow the thought of absolute power from Christian dogmas ( Elborough. 2001 ) .
Contrary to common belief. Nietzsche is far more concern with spiritualty than any of his coevalss. In the narrative.
he presents the lunatic as a earnestly spiritual adult male. He is merely concern with the religious status of the modern universe. Nietzsche thought that those people who pride themselves in abdicating spiritual superstitious notions arrange their lives to accomplish secular ends. They do non detect that even with the strong belief of infidelity or incredulity to the being of God. they are still grounded on wonts once fostered by their faith.They do non detect that in the class of abandoning religion and belief in God they have replaced with him scientific discipline ( Solomon and Higgins.
2000 ) . However. he maintained that this new religion is no different than the first one – faith or the belief in God. His statement that “God is dead” is a review of modern scientific philistinism. Intellectuals thought that they have already replaced fabrications and phantasies with facts but the truth scientific histories are still a myth to replace another myth.
He acknowledged the fact that religion in God might decrease assurance we have in ourselves and the human powers that we think we have. but this can be compensated by through a reassurance that we are God’s creative activities. This is contrary to the myth of scientific discipline which posits the thought that being is by manner of accident and minor expense. Furthermore. the blissful expectancy of life after decease on Christian philosophy is non-existent in the kingdom of the scientific disciplines. There is no such thing as beyond any life on Earth which frustrates people’s chase for felicity and significance.He asserted that we can non seek significance with the assistance of scientific discipline because it merely promotes nihilism.
the sense that everything in this universe is of no value and significance ( Solomon and Higgins. 2000 ) . He hence advocated the metempsychosis of spiritualty and reclamation of the grasp on earthly life and nature. He thinks that the option to this would be to travel back to the instructions of nature.
He believed that both Christianity and scientific discipline have their ain booby traps. They are the manner out of each horrors and uncertainnesss about our being in the universe.He besides manifested his sentiments on the inclination of Christian worldview and scientific philistinism to harm people’s capacity to love and to love beyond the ego. However. he believed that this can be recovered through cultivating spiritualty beyond Christianity. To travel beyond Christianity would besides intend that we do non reject its interior truth. Finally.
the significance of life can non be found in Eden or any topographic point beyond physical being. but merely in the every twenty-four hours universe that we know of ( Solomon and Higgins. 2000 ) . Nietzsche’s Crisis Most of his Hagiographas were done when he was in his crisis old ages which are besides labeled as his huffy old ages.During this clip. he was enormously productive working on about five books including The Gay Science and Thus Spake Zarathustra. It is said that while he was in Turin he collapsed into lunacy when he saw a driver crushing a Equus caballus.
What he did was to walk to the Equus caballus and attempted to protect it but failed because he collapsed before he could make so. There is besides a missive received by his friend sing the state of affairs which alarmed him. In the missive. Nietzsche was speaking of himself as God. He wrote another missive to Overbeck signed by the name of Dionysus.
Overbeck so was distressed so and sends him to a mental refuge in Jena. He was ab initio released to the detention of his female parent but was transferred to his sister after his female parent died. It can be said that even when he was literally brainsick for the last old ages in his life. his plants and thoughts. even utmost. were “hardly insane” ( Solomon and Higgins. 2000 ) .
References Elborough. T. ( 2001 ) . Freidrich Nietzsche. Harpenden: Pockets Necessities. Kauffman. W.
( 1975 ) . Nietzsche: Philosopher. Psychologist. Antichrist. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Ludovici. A. M.
( 2008 ) .Nietzsche. His Life and Works. USA: Bibliobazaar. Nietzsche. F. W. .
Williams. B. A. O. . Nauckhoff. J.
and Del Caro. A. ( 2001 ) . The Gay Science: With Prelude in German Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs. Oxford: Cambridge UP. Salome. L. A.
and Mandel. S. ( 2001 ) . Nietzsche. Illinois: University of Illinois Press. Schacht.
R. ( 1985 ) . Nietzsche: Great Philosophers. London: Routledge. Solomon.
R. and Higgins. K. ( 2000 ) . What Nietzsche Really Said. Berlin: Schocken Books.
Wilkerson. D. ( 2006 ) . Nietzsche and the Greeks. New York: Continuum International Publishing.