In their seek to improve the health care delivery systems many countries are in the tract of developing new roles for the health care professionals, Nursing as a key component of the primary health care is nonetheless involved. (Hinchliff et al 2003 p15, 19) In recent years, new and innovative nursing roles have been introduced across a range of specialism. Such roles have been developed in response to changing health care needs, patient expectations, professional regulation/licensure and government initiatives (Chaney et al 2007)As it continues to evolve, the development of new roles varies greatly from staff nurse to many of these roles which are new to nursing and require advanced knowledge and expertise. With new roles, a proliferation of titles has emerged (McKenna et al. 2005).
These include, clinical nurse specialist (CNS), nurse practitioner (NP), advanced nurse practitioner (ANP) and, more recently, nurse consultant (NC) (Chaney et al 2007).This assignment is going to discuss about the expertise in nursing it aims to explore the different definitions of Advanced Nurse Practitioners and Clinical nurse Specialists as a mean of nursing expertise and it will attempt to review the characteristics of the nursing expert and tries to describe the nature aspects that distinguish it from a generalist nursing. In this It will review current literature relating to the ANP and tries to discuss the need of nurse experts and What’s the benefit to practice, it will highlight the seek for ANP role in Bahrain strategies and recommendations ,and what are the foundations for future nurse experts in gastroenterology as my area of practice. Defining Advance nurse practitioner as expert nurses: “Having, involving, or displaying special skill or knowledge derived from training or experience.This is how the term EXPERT is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online dictionary, however in nursing ,the meaning of what an expert nurse in clinical practice , is not as easy to define or evaluate, as it is in nursing education or nursing research.
Currie and Watterson (2009) have demonstrated that a range of words can be used to refer to level and scope of practice of an expert nurse, that’s also admitted by Fitzgerald et al (2012) “Advanced practice registered nurses include nurse practitioner (NPS), certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) certified registered nurse anaesthetist (CRNAs), and clinical nurse specialist (CNSs)” Besides , Delmarie and Lafortune (2010, p23) discussed how it’s difficult to define precisely what’s meant by the term “advanced practice nursing “as this term encompasses a large and growing variety of practices.Reflecting the variety of experimentations with new roles of nurses, a recent international review identified no less than 13 different titles that advanced practice nurses may have in different countries, (Pulcini et al. , 2010)” So, There are several definitions of ‘’nurse practitioner’’ exist and many share common elements that are linked into independent, autonomous practice, free from supervision of physicians (Nasif 2011).The American College of Nurse Practitioners (ACNP) uses the following definition: “NPs are registered nurses who are prepared, through advanced education and clinical training, to provide a wide range of preventive and acute health care services to individuals of all ages. NPs complete graduate-level education preparation that leads to a master’s degree” (ACNP, 2006),” the International council of nurses (ICN) defined Advanced Practice Nurse is a registered nurse who has acquired the expert knowledge base, complex decision-making skills and clinical competencies for expanded practice, the characteristics of which are shaped by the context and/or country in which s/he is credentialed to practice.
A Master’s degree is recommended for entry level” (Schober and Affara 2008, p. 11) Qualities and characteristics of ANP: The best known work is that of benner (1984), who identified attributes of Expert nurses, such as focusing on patient problem and providing solutions, managing complex situation, and having vision (Hinchliff et al p 449).Day (2009) said that “The expert engages in “involved skilled behavioural based on an accumulation of concrete experiences and the unconscious recognition of new situations as similar to whole remembered ones” as These expert nurses display tremendous intuition, wisdom, and insight into the depth of the relationship between nurse and patient(Ferrell 2010) . I reviewed Different literature in the search for the characteristics of an advance nurse practitioner and clinical nurse expert these are illustrated in the table.