ØInstitution: Social institutions are a system ofbehavioral and relationship patterns that are densely interwoven and enduring,and function across an entire society. They order and structure the behavior ofindividuals by means of their normative character. ØFamily institution: The family is generally regarded as amajor social institution and a locus of much of a person’s social activity. Itis a social unit created by blood, marriage, or adoption, and can be describedas nuclear (parents and children) or extended (encompassing other relatives). Ø Functionsof family institution: · Physical maintenance and care of group members.· Addition of new members through procreation oradoption.· Socialization of children.
· Social control of members.· Production, consumption, distribution of goods andservices.· Affective nurturance· Satisfaction of the biological needs· Psychological satisfaction · Full fill the emotional needs· Economic co-operation · Maintaining the morality · Sociological perspectives ØSocial functions of the family: Function perspectives emphasizes that social institutionperform several important function to help the preserve social stability andotherwise social working. A functional understanding of the family thusstresses the way in which the family as a social institution helps make societypossible. As such, the family performs several important functions. First, the family is the primary unit forsocializing children. As previous chapters indicated, no society is possiblewithout adequate socialization of its young. In most societies, the family isthe major unit in which socialization happens.
Parents, siblings, and, if thefamily is extended rather than nuclear, other relatives all help socializechildren from the time they are born.Second, the family is ideally a major source of practical andemotional support for its members. It provides them food, clothing, shelter,and other essentials, and it also provides them love, comfort, help in times ofemotional distress, and other types of intangible support that we all need.
Third, the family helps regulate sexual activity and sexualreproduction. All societies have norms governing with whom and how often aperson should have sex. The family is the major unit for teaching these normsand the major unit through which sexual reproduction occurs. One reason forthis is to ensure that infants have adequate emotional and practical care whenthey are born. The incest taboo that most societies have, which prohibits sexbetween certain relatives, helps minimize conflict within the family if sexoccurred among its members and to establish social ties among differentfamilies and thus among society as a whole. ØThe family conflict: Conflict theorists agree that the family serves the importantfunctions just listed, but they also point to problems within the family thatthe functional perspective minimizes or overlooks altogether. First, the family as a social institution contributes to socialinequality in several ways. The social identity it gives to its children doesaffect their life chances, but it also reinforces a society’s system ofstratification.
Because families pass along their wealth to their children, andbecause families differ greatly in the amount of wealth they have, the familyhelps reinforce existing inequality. As it developed through the centuries, andespecially during industrialization, the family also became more and more of apatriarchal unit, helping to ensure men’s status at the top of the socialhierarchy.Second, the family can also be a source of conflict for its ownmembers. Although the functional perspective assumes the family provides itsmembers emotional comfort and support, many families do just the opposite andare far from the harmonious, happy groups depicted in the 1950s television shows.
Instead, and as the news story that began this chapter tragically illustrated,they argue, shout, and use emotional cruelty and physical violence. ØFamilies and social interaction The interaction offamily members and intimate couples involves shared understandings of theirsituations. Wives and husbands have different styles of communication, andsocial class affects the expectations that spouses have of their marriages andof each other. Romantic love is the common basis for American marriages anddating relationships, but it is much less common in several other contemporarynations.
· Types of family institution: Ø Nuclearfamily:The nuclear family isthe traditional type of family institute. This family type consist of twoparents and children. ØSingle parent family:A single parent familyis a mother with her mother, there are single father as well. The single parentfamily is the biggest change society has seen in term of changes in familyinstitute. Ø Childlessfamily:Childless familyconsist of husband and wife living and working together. The childless familysometimes the ‘forgotten family ‘because they don’t have child. ØMatrifocal family: A “matrifocal” familyconsists of a mother and her children.
Generally, these children are herbiological offspring, although adoption of children is a practice in nearlyevery society. This kind of family occurs commonly where women have the resourcesto rear their children by themselves, or where men are more mobile than women.As a definition, “a family or domestic group is matrifocal when it iscentered on a woman and her children. In this case, the father(s) of thesechildren are intermittently present in the life of the group and occupy asecondary place. The children’s mother is not necessarily the wife of one ofthe children’s fathers ØStepfamily:Over half of marriagesend in divorce, and many these individual choose to get remarried. This createthe stepfamily. It consist of a new husband and wife and their children fromprevious marriages.
ØGrandparent family:Many grandparentstoday are rising their grandchildren’s for a variety of reasons and the parentsare not present in the child’s life. ØExtended family:The extended familyconsist of two or more adults who are related, either by blood or marriages, inthe same home. This family includes many relatives living together and workingtoward common goals, such as rising the children and keeping up with thehousehold duties. ØMonogamous family:A monogamous family isbased on a legal or social monogamy. This means that a person may not haveseveral different legal spouses at the same time, as this is usually prohibitedby bigamy laws, in jurisdictions that require monogamous marriages. · Relationship of family with society ØStructural functional perspectives: Structural-functionalistor functionalist take a broad view of society and focus on macro aspect ofsocial life. They view society as a set of elements or components that arerelated to one another in a more or less stable fashion through a period of time.Social institutions are viewed as structural parts of society performingvarious essential tasks and meeting some needs of the society.
Family is astructural component of the society and performs certain essential functions,contributing to the survival of society as a whole-the organic whole. Ø Conflictperspective: Conflict perspectivefocuses their attention on society as a whole. Conflict theorists see societyas in a continuous sate of conflict between groups and classes.
The strugglefor power and income is a continuous process but one in which many categoriesof people appear as opponents-classes, races, nationalities and even the sexes.Society is held together through the power of dominant groups or classes. The source of conflict insociety, they hold, is the scarcity of the resources people require e.g. wealth, prestige andpower are always in limited supply and their gain for one individual and groupare often associated with losses for others. ØSymbolic interactionist perspectives: Symbolic interactionism is based on three coreassumptions. First, we respond to things in ourenvironment on the basis of their meanings. Second, meanings are not inherent in things,but emerge from social interaction.
Third, because we are continuallyinteracting, shared cultural meanings are continually emerging and changing. The interactionist perspective is moreconcerned with the micro or small-scale aspects of social life. Theyconcentrate their attention on interaction between individuals and groups. · Treatment with women and children inthe society Pakistani women lacksocial value and status because of negation of their roles as producers andproviders in all social roles. The preference for sons due to their productiverole often dictates the allocation of household resources in their favor. Traditionally,male members of the family are given better education and are equipped withskills to compete for resources in the public arena, while female members areimparted domestic skills to be good mothers and wives.
Lack of skills, limitedopportunities in the job market, and social, religious and culturalrestrictions limit women’s chances to compete for resources in the publicarena. This situation has led to the social and economic dependency of womenthat becomes the basis for male power over women in all social relationships.However, the spread of patriarchy is not even. The nature and degree of women’ssubordination vary across classes, regions, and the rural/urban divide.Patriarchal structures are relatively stronger in the rural and tribal settingwhere local customs establish male authority and power over women’s lives. Onthe other hand, women belonging to the upper and middle classes haveincreasingly greater access to education and employment opportunities and canassume greater control over their lives. Accordingto Pakistani standards, ‘good women’ could be either educated or uneducated andare expected to be unselfish, calm, tolerant, empathetic, reliable, able toorganize, compromise, coordinate and maintain hospitality within the house andin keeping good relationships.
They are also expected to do household chores,care for her children, husband and in-laws and, when needed, provide the homewith external income. Women are also expected to marry a man of their parent’schoice, follow Islam’s code of dress and sacrifice their own dreams. Evidence regarding theoptimal treatment of AN in children and teenagers is growing; however, muchremains unknown Although current treatment approaches vary in Canada andelsewhere, the evidence to date suggests that family-based treatment (FBT) isthe most effective treatment for children and teenagers with AN. A keycomponent of the FBT model is that the parents are given the responsibility toreturn their child to physical health and ensure full weight restoration. Inthis model, the patient is treated as an outpatient by an interdisciplinaryteam assisting the family in tackling the eating disorder and helping the childto make changes in his or her eating behavior.
The potential advantages of thisapproach are numerous – the young person remains in his or her environment,which allows for ongoing connection with friends, family and activities – allof which are essential for long-term recovery. The family becomes empowered asthey learn that they have the ability to help their child. Finally, scarceinpatient resources can be directed to young people whose eating disordercannot be managed as an outpatient with FBT. AlthoughFBT is considered standard treatment in child- and adolescent-onset AN, it isunclear whether it is the best initial approach for all young patients andtheir families, or whether we can predict who is more likely to respond. Thismodel has also not yet been studied in a community setting. Despite theselimitations, however, a knowledge of the basic principles and philosophyunderlying FBT allows the pediatrician or family physician to initiate elementsof an evidence-based intervention to the young person. Further, anunderstanding of FBT allows the physician to introduce components of thistreatment should the patient and family be waiting for further consultationfrom specialized pediatric eating disorders services.
· Changes in family system due to industrializationand urbanization: Urbanization and industrializationmay exist without the small nuclear family and fragmented kindred, and that thesmall nuclear family exists without industrialization and urbanization. Analternative hypothesis, hence, is that the specific social system that grew uparound machine technology in Western civilization may result from the fact thatthe small nuclear family existed in Europe and the United States before theindustrial revolution.The process of social change and the level of socio-economicdevelopment within a society, for the whole institutional organization of asocial system influences and is influenced by that process of social changeconceptualized as urbanization. In Pakistan, the process of urbanization,moreover, proceeds unevenly within a society which, although officially basedprincipally on the one integrating principle of Islam, actually ischaracterized by sharp socio-cultural and geo-physical diversities. Pakistanmay be considered a laboratory for the analysis of the in terrelations between,population phenomena, culture, resources, and technologies. The nation is involvedin a fundamental process of social change, purposively and non-purposivelyaltering its predominately non industrial, rural, and traditionally peasantsocietal system to possibly a modern, industrial and urban system. Our notionis that this process of societal change has proceeded unevenly throughout theseveral political, cultural and administrative areas of Pakistan.
Industrialization is the process in which an economytransformed from primarily agriculture to one based on the manufacturing ofgoods. Individual manual labor is often replaced by mechanized mass production,and the craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines. · Familysystems of Pakistan:Family system in every country will vary depending upon theirculture and style of living.ØNuclear family:A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is afamily group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more). It isin contrast to a single-parent family, to the larger extended family, and to afamily with more than two parents. ØJoint family:A joint family or undivided family is an extended familyarrangement prevalent throughout the Indian subcontinent, particularly inIndia, consisting of many generations living in the same household, all boundby the common relationship.
In Pakistan, the joint family system is quite usually found.Joint family usually comprises father, mother, children, grand father andmother, and they live together with their people in the same family unit.Moreover, the governing male of the house will play a significant role withrespect to the well-being of his family unit. Also, they give a good care andtake the responsibility to guard their grandparents. Above all, they respecttheir folks and grandparents! People in Pakistan dearly follow the joint familysystem and live their life along with their people. When considering the elderpeople in Pakistan, they usually stick with their offspringor grandchildren to get a complete support and care. They rely and dependon their people to get their assistance and support in all aspects such asphysical, social and financial wellbeing.
Giving physical and emotionalsupport is quite usual in joint family system! It has been declared that urbanizationwill probably dilapidate and crumble the family care to their elder people.Moreover, urbanization will also drop-off the care of the growing children withtheir elders. People in Pakistan are greatly trilingual and most of the peopleliving here are Muslims. They give much respect to their customs and traditionsand they closely follow the worth-taking family values. You could see mostpeople living as joint family group along with their people and folks, whereassome other group of people lives as nuclear family.
People living as nuclearfamily will take care of their spouse and offspring. References:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Familyhttps://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/anorexia-nervosa-family-based-treatmenthttps://www.scribd.com/doc/56928600/Joint-Family-Systemhttps://www.