p.p1 the societies that used it. Although, in

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0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.

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0px Palatino; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p5 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; text-indent: 30.

0px; font: 12.0px Palatino; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 16.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #000000} span.

s2 {font-kerning: none; color: #fed264; -webkit-text-stroke: 0px #fed264} span.s3 {font-kerning: none} span.s4 {font: 12.0px ‘Times New Roman’; font-kerning: none} With the benefit of centuries of hindsight, it is possible to see concrete’s evolution – from its discovery to its current widespread use in reinforced form – as closely intertwined with the evolving needs and priorities of the societies that used it.

Although, in the past architects and people minded construction, its methods, aesthetics, ornamentation. They did not engage with the unknown problem of the pollution at the time. Now that we know how our decisions, constructions are influencing the world, design outcome is different. The project might be simple construction wise and appearance, but highly sustainable and ecology driven. Our and the worlds’ needs changed and cannot be ignored anymore that’s why the design outcome is and should evolve directly according.

Today, a new powerful need is emerging to reduce the environmental impact of human activities, including building: use fewer materials and less energy, and consider the entire design life cycle, from conception through manufacture to disposal.Being one of the main materials today, concrete has its advantages and disadvantages. It is economical since the ingredients mentioned already are readily available, and relatively long-life span gives it reliability, also as low maintenance: it does not decay, corrode or rot as other building materials. It also has the ability to be moulded or casted into many desired shapes, can occur on the work-site, which reduces shipping cost.

For fire hazard concrete is able to withstand high temperatures, hence it is often used for storm shelters. Although, disadvantages are quite high. The cement industry is one of the highest producers of carbon dioxide emission, a potent greenhouse gas, causing also damage to the topsoil, fertile layer of the earth.

Dangerous air pollution can be caused by concretes dust released by building demolition or natural disasters. As mentioned carbon dioxide emissions create up to 5% of worldwide made emissions of this gas, of which 50% is chemical process and 40% from burning fuel. 2.2 Self-healing ConcreteSelf-healing concrete might be the best and for today the newest solution, filling any fissures that appear over time whilst having a specialized bacterium (Pt 8). An endless variety of bacteria occur in nature and many are well adapted to artificial environments, of which some are extreme, so these microorganisms have been called ‘extremophiles’. From a human perspective, concrete may appear to be a supremely inhospitable environment for life form – dry and rock solid within.

However, to these bacteria, it poses few challenges. A select group of extremophiles not only thrive in barren conditions but also naturally produce limestone. This ability can be harnessed to seal holes and strengthen weak areas. Concrete is incorporating these hardy bacteria, known as BioConcrete (funnily named also as health-conscious concrete), could benefit both economy and the environment because traditional building materials are ubiquitous, it is expensive to maintain, and creates a tremendous carbon footprint as mentioned before.

The self-healing material would lower the cost of remediation, as well as reduce the demand for cement, which currently contributes more than 5 % to the world’s human-generated carbon dioxide emissions. If concrete cracks, which it will, no matter how carefully the mix is made or the reinforcement fixed, the water goes through and causes the leakage, also it can reach the reinforcement and make the steel beams corrode and make the whole structure collapse, thus bacteria not only heals the cracks but also prevents from hazardous events. This whole project was generated and bacteria was found by Professor Henk Jonkers (Dutch)- CiTG Microlab, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. Bacteria is added to the mix and does not dissolve while it is mixed, it only activates when concrete cracks and water reaches through, in this situation water is the key to activating it. Afterwards, bacteria, extremophiles start to produce limestone and fill up the gaps, although, leaving a mark, which gives a new aesthetic look to concrete which can be recognized because of this reason (Pt 7).

  The question afterwards is if we build structures that would stand more than a lifetime, how  we should approach the design process? Should we consider present architecture ‘trends’ or create futuristic looks that might implement, adapt later on? Buildings these days can be demolished even when the architect of it is still present. Societies accelerated the change of needs regarding to technological involvement, turns out in a fast change of opinion. Because of new technologies, big screens and bombastic visuals, people tend to get bored easily. A solution for this new material being integrated into the design is modularity and interchangeability. If the structure is easy to change and adapt to its surroundings, it can survive for way longer.

Creating a core for a building and not giving it one and only purpose might be a positive alternative in the context of its lifespan, which means creating a design for megacities that are approaching inevitably.