Parentingis the act of giving of necessary support to a child for their physical,emotional, social, and cognitive development (Baydar, Akç?nar, & ?mer,2012). Since modernization is a continuous process, raising a child in theperiod of modernization could be a challenging task as a parent due to the newlydeveloped technologies and scientific advances offered by the new millennia.The parents, now as the older generation, grew up in a different time period,lived in a different social-environment, and brought up with a different set ofvalues. They, as well as their parenting as they raise a child, should alsoadapt with the modern era.Parentshave a tremendous influence to their children, which will be the nextgeneration of adults. According to Dempsey, Kimicik & Horn (1993) thefamily unit, particularly the parents, is important for the development ofyoung children’s activity-related attitudes, beliefs, preferences, andbehaviors. The Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) proposed that youngindividuals learn through observing other people.
Many researches wereconducted and support this view. Parents affect their children’s physicalactivity (Thompson, Flumbert, & Mirwald, 2003), academic values (Gniewoszand Noack, 2012), social adjustments ( D’Angelo, Weinberger, & Feldman,1995), intergroup attitudes (Degner& Dalege, 2013), political and religious attitudes (Jennings, Stoker, , 2009) etc.Generationaltheory propose that when people are born within a 20 year time period, have alocation in history, share common beliefs and behavior, and posses a sensemembership within the generational group, generational cohorts emerge (Strauss& Howe, 1991). It is assumed that Generational cohorts have completely differentvalues and behaviors because they experienced different events during theirformative years (Howe & Strauss, 2003). Many researches concerning aboutthe generational gap between parents and their adolescent or young adultchildren were conducted during the 1960s and 1970s, although, the actualdifferences in beliefs and values between parents and their adolescent childrenwere found to be minimal or insignificant (Jacobsen, Berry, & Olson, 1975).In contrast, researches proposed that wrong questions were being asked aboutgenerational differences (e.g.
Acock and Bengtson,1980). According to Acock andBengtson (1980), “Rather than ask, ‘Towhat extent is the generation gap real?’ we ask, ‘Where is the reality of thegeneration gap?'” (p. 502). This question was pursued through research andyouth perceptions of parental attitudes, not the actual parent attitudes, weresurprisingly strong predictors of young adults’ self reported attitudes. It is concludedthat the generation gap exists when perceived differences exist (Acock andBengtson, 1980).Technologyis an integral part of contemporary family life (McHale, Dotterer, & Kim,2009; Vogl-Bauer, 2003; Wartella & Jennings, 2001), which directedattention to generational differences between parents and youth (Clark, 2009;Livingstone, 2003).
The Millennial generation, born between 1980 and 2000 (PewResearch Center, 2010), which includes contemporary young adults, is proposedto be different and unique from the Baby Boomer generation (born between 1943and 1960; Coomes & Debard, 2004) and Generation X, born between 1961 and1981, cohorts based not only on Millennials’ access to technology, but how theyhave integrated technology into their social lives (Pew Research Center, 2010).Further, generational differences in technological skills have been proposed,with Millennials experiencing more proficiency and comfort with technology thanprevious generations (Prensky, 2001). The differences between generationalcohorts have largely been based on anecdotal evidence and have been perpetuatedby popular media, but little empirical support for actual generationaldifferences has emerged in the literature (Litt, 2013).
However, consistentwith Acock and Bengtson’s (1980) conclusions in their generation gap research,a few qualitative studies identified perceived generational differences intechnology skills between parents and their children (Clark, 2009; Livingstone,2003).Modernizationis a comprehensive concept that illustrates the transition of a society fromancient to modern culture (Kumar & Mittal, 2014). According to Inkeles andSmith (1974) a modern man are has thereadiness for new experience and openness to innovation and change, and thecapability of forming or holding opinions over large numbers of problems andissues that arise not only in immediate environment but also outside of it. Krithikaand Vasantha (2013) conducted a study the development and modernization oftechnology had made people’s life easier and contributed positively to socialwell being so for while it has also brought about some problems.
This studyaims to examine the relationship between parenting and modernization attitudesof Kapampangan parents.