Peat the haze disaster. Therefore, the handling of

Peat Concern Village Program needs more coordination and facility of development programs at location of peat restoration priorities. This program should be developed by a landscape-based villages peatlands ecosystem. The adjacent villages should be cooperate in a rural peatlands to make sure the sustainable peatlands restoration policy is on the right track.

Central government should also encourage local governments to take part actively. For example, by giving rewards within the form of fiscal transfer to the region that has successfully implemented protection and sustainable management of peatlands. The role of local government could not be underestimated. Local government have potential to become countervailing power against the national authority because they are frequently near the scene of disasters and contaminations, it should work as a critical guard dog over central government and private industry (Nakamura, 1992). At last, the most important thing in policy implementation is law enforcement.

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Rogue companies and perpetrators of peat swamp forest fire must be done explicitly to create a deterrent effect so that fires and haze disaster are no longer repeated. Indonesian government response on this issue should be appreciated, such as arresting the perpetrators, revocation and freezing of company permits that involved in petlands fires. But it is not enough, the greatest challenge is how central and local governments can monitor and control sustainable land-clearing activities by taking into account the analysis of environmental impacts as a whole, not just seeking revenues from the plantation sector alone. It needs a sustained commitment and involvement of all actors to unify communication and trust so that current issues do not continue in the future. The law enforcement should not stop on local level. It should include investigating the flow of money from Malaysia and Singapore stakeholders that is being used to invest in illegal mid-size palm oil plantations. As neighbor countries whose borders are closest to Indonesia, they were also deeply affected by the haze disaster.

Therefore, the handling of environment policy also needs to be brought to the ASEAN level. There were several community-based peatland projects executed in collaboration with Malaysia and Singapore. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is working on this issue through the ‘ASEAN haze-free vision in 2020’ program and ASEAN Peatlands Management Initiatives (APMI). In global level, Indonesia is considered to be the most compliant country for the Paris COP21, as it has become the first nation to conduct massive peat restoration activities and is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to one giga ton (“Indonesia Becomes Global Model”, 2017). To be the most progressive country in terms of the policies to manage peatlands area, means other countries will be looking at Indonesia on how it would be implementing conservation policies and arrangement points.

It is not an easy task, but could be done with support and cooperation with other countries (for example joint countries in Global Peatland Initiatives (GPI) and global entities such as United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).