“Peripheral Vision is the ability to see movement and objects outside of your direct line of vision.”https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10638 It is the work of rods or nerve cells located outside the macula of the retina. These rods are responsible for your night vision and low-light vision but are insensitive to color. Peripheral Vision is broken down into 3 parts; far-peripheral vision, mid-peripheral vision, and near-peripheral vision. These segments are pretty self-explanatory. Far-peripheral vision is your vision at the edge of your field of view; mid-peripheral vision is your view in the middle and near-peripheral vision is the vision just next to your center gaze. Most people do not value their peripheral vision until they start to lose it. The loss of peripheral vision is called tunnel vision. Peripheral Vision is weaker in humans than any other species. This is due to the thickness of the receptor cells on the retina. The retina is a coating of tissue located in the back of the inner eye that converts light images to nerve signals and sends them to the brain. The receptor cells on the retina are the thickest at the center or the macula, and more spread out at the edges. There’s are two types of receptor cells called rod cells and cone cells. Rod cells are extremely important for seeing in low light, but they are unable to tell the difference in color. Cone cells are intense in the center of the retina and enable us to see bright lights and color. Most professional eye doctors agree that peripheral field defect or loss of peripheral vision is linked to nerve damage. Nerve damage could be caused by glaucoma or injury along with eye strokes, or a concussion. Glaucoma is a disease that ruins your eye’s optic nerve. It typically occurs when fluid forms in the front section of your eye. The additional fluid multiplies the pressure in your eye, harming the nerves. There are 2 major types of glaucoma. Primary open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. The most common type is primary. It happens slowly, and occurs when the eyes don’t drain fluid as well as it should. As an outcome the eye builds pressure and it starts to injury the optic nerve. This is a painless process and no loss of vision at first. Some people can have optic nerves that are sensitive to any pressure, as expected that means their risk of getting glaucoma is greater than normal. Angle-closure glaucoma happens when someone’s iris is too close to the drainage angle in their eye. The iris could end up clogging the drainage angle. When your drainage angle is completely blocked, eye pressure may rise very rapidly. This is called an acute attack, it is an urgent situation and you should call your ophthalmologist right away or you could go blind.Some symptoms of Angle-closure Glaucoma are hazy vision, the appearance of rainbow circles around bright lights, unbearable eye and head pain, nausea, vomiting and unexpected loss of sight. These symptoms are very obvious, and damage happens very quickly. If you are over the age of 40 your risk of glaucoma increases, this also goes with Hispanic, and people who suffer from diabetes or migraines. The damage of Glaucoma is permanent, but you can have surgery to help prevent any further damage. Some treats to help prevent Glaucoma are eye drop medicine or laser surgery. Glaucoma is normally controlled by eye drops. These eye drops could help increase the flow at your drainage angle or lower eye pressure. Laser surgery has two main types called Trabeculoplasty and Iridotomy.Trabeculoplasty is for Open-angle Glaucoma, it is used to help decrease eye pressure and make the drainage angle work better. Iridotomy is for Angle-closure Glaucoma. The doctor would remove a tiny piece in your iris to help the drainage angle work better.Another common eye disease you could get is Retinitis Pigmentosa. Retinitis Pigmentosa is a genetic condition, meaning it travels down through generations. The condition of Retinitis Pigmentosa varies on each person. Some symptoms of Retinitis Pigmentosa are the loss of night vision or night blindness, or problems with color vision. Some people may have trouble seeing the difference in some colors with Retinitis Pigmentosa. Night blindness means you take longer to adjust to the dark, you may fall over objects or have trouble driving in the dark. You may also find it difficult to see in movie theaters or dim rooms. Retinitis Pigmentosa is diagnosed and measured by a few simple test such as genetic testing, electroretinography, Visual field testing, and Optical Coherence Tomography. Genetic testing is a test that looks at your blood and other tissues to see if you have genes that are linked to a disease. It may also help decide how crucial the disease is. Electroretinography is a test that calculates the electrical activity in the retina or how well it answers to light. It works also equivalent similar to the EKG, which looks at the activity of your heart. Visual field testing is a test that helps measure your side vision and find any blind spots that may be forming. Optical coherence tomography, also know as OCT is a test that takes extremely precise pictures of your retina. It can help identify Retinitis Pigmentosa and find how it is having an influence your retina.Everything listed above is extremely important. If you are diagnosed with glaucoma or any of the issues listed above it is important that you see your main doctor. Make sure to set up a normal schedule of examinations to monitor your condition and that your prescribed treatment is working effectively.