Phase Separation Solutions: the China Question

June B, 2005 Country and Sector Background Estimated Date of Board 1. Background.

Polycarbonate phenyl (BPCS) are one of the twelve persistent organic pollutants (pops), which, due to their damage to human health and the environment, were identified for elimination by the Stockholm Convention, which entered into force on May 17, 2004. China has been strongly committed to the development and implementation of the Stockholm Convention. It participated in all preparatory meetings and signed the Convention as soon as it opened for signature on May 23, 2001.China officially deified the Stockholm Convention on August 13, 2004, and is a Party to the Convention. China has also advanced substantially in meeting the Convention requirement that Parties to the Convention submit a National Implementation Plan (NIP to the Conference of Parties within two years after the Convention enters into force for that country. China started preparing its NIP in mid-2004 and is expected to complete it by the required date of August 13, 2006. 2. Country Situation.

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Only three PC producers (in Asian, Ouzos, and Shanghai) ever manufactured BPCS in China and only from 1965 to early 1974 details in Annex I).They produced approximately 10,000 tons, including 1,000 tons of phenomenological (APPC) and 9,000 tons of terminologically (APPC). Some wastes may remain at production facilities, which Build be addressed under the national replication program to be developed in this project (component 6, Para_AS) . BPCS Oils were generally used in a Wide variety Of Open systems, such as in oil paints and exterior dopes.

APPC was principally used in manufacturing capacitors that were used in the electricity supply industry. 3. During the sass, following growing health and environmental concerns,China removed most PC-containing capacitors from service and placed them in temporary storage facilities (underground “concrete coffins” or in caves) intended to hold them for 3-20 years. Recent surveys and investigations indicate that most PC-containing equipment remains in these temporary storage facilities, and that many of the facilities caves and burial sites are leaking BPCS into the environment. 4. The Main Sector Issues to be Addressed by the Project. China is a country with a vast territory and a population of over 1. Billion, Because of its size, the raying stages of economic development and various degree of effectiveness of PC management and disposal in different regions, China faces many challenges in PC management and disposal.

These include incomplete PC baseline data, a weak institutional and policy framework for PC management, lack of PC disposal technology and facilities, and insufficient public awareness. The project will address these sector issues in one province (Jagging) to determine and demonstrate the most cost-effective practices and technologies for managing and disposing of BPCS in China.This demonstration will help China design and cost its nation-wide PC program and help other countries design theirs. The main PC management and disposal issues that the project Will address in Jagging Province are: a. Incomplete PC baseline data. The project will complete the identification of PC wastes (including associated PC-contaminated soils) in temporary PC storage sites, over 95% of the wastes are believed to be PC capacitors and PC containing oil. An ongoing Sino-Italian PC project (Development of PC Inventory Methodology and Draft PC Disposal Strategy) is collectingPC baseline information in Jagging and Loaning Provinces.

This project will support follow-up activities, including identifying the exact locations of the PC sites, performing PC concentration tests before their cleanup, and cleaning up of the sites, The Sino-Italian project has also obtained some basic intimation on transformers in both provinces: however detailed information on PC transformers and their levels of contamination still need to be confirmed in both provinces.This demonstration project will focus on identifying in-use PC contaminated transformers installed before 1980 and testing decontamination genealogy of PC transformers as well as decontaminating some of those large in-use PC transformers installed before 1980. The project does not attempt to decontaminate all the PC contaminated transformers in Jagging. This would be a long-term task and would have to be integrated into the normal service and maintenance of transformers. B. Weak PC management and disposal capacity.

This project will support environmentally sound management Of APPC, including recovery, collection, packaging, transportation, safe temporary storage in Jagging, and final disposal in Loaning. There are currently no suitable facilities in China that meet the requirements of the Stockholm Convention for environmentally sound and safe disposal Of BPCS. China has started construction Of a new incinerator facility to dispose BPCS in 2002. However, design of this new facility does not meet the requirements of the Stockholm Convention on safe disposal of BPCS.China will provide additional funding to complete this incinerator with equipments that are necessary for safe emission control and monitoring of the incineration process. The project will also support capacity building activities for sound PC management and disposal.

C. Health and environmental risks trot PC contaminated soils and water. A toxicity study of EDT and PC on women and children supported by Canadian Trust Fund is ongoing.

Its key objective is to investigate the exposure of EDT and BPCS and their adverse effects with special emphasis on the health of women and children.The initial study result indicates that the tested area in Jagging has a high-concentration PC exposure, PC geometric concentration levels in women and children in this area are moderately elevated. They are below those mound in Arctic Canada (Unapt) and above those found in southern Canada.

In the Jagging province, several accidental releases Of BPCS are known to have occurred (details in Annex 1, Paragraphs 15-18). Data from the Me Change and Shannon sites in Jagging show leakage at both sites and their contamination levels reached 150 – 250 pump, three to five times the national standard Of SO pump.The information from Jagging Province suggests that the PC storage sites with confirmed or suspected leakage are located (i) in close proximity, sometimes within the footprint, of residential, office or retail buildings e. G. , in Shaking Business Street), (ii) in public parks (e. G.

, Xix Culture Park). (xiii at upstream of drinking water reservoirs and rivers (e. G. , Asian Tang Gang River supplying the City of Hangout), (iv) at sites of planned or ongoing infrastructure development (e. G. Quondam Lake Holiday Valley building and playground in Jonathans), (v) at active cemeteries (e. G. , Me Change Township), and (vi) at farers (e.

G. , in Wenches Hugging). The project, therefore, will address the health and environmental risks by recovering and disposing of the BPCS from all sites in Jagging Province to prevent torture releases to the environment. The cleanup of PC sites would be based upon a clear understanding of site-specific risks, feasibility of the technological options and costs.

. Imperfect policies, regulations, standards and enforcement. Enforcement and execution of current polices and regulations are severely constrained by the absence of effective monitoring and evaluation measures. The project will therefore support development and update of the legal and regulatory system for sate PC management and disposal. Related policies and regulations at he national and local levels governing PC management and disposal will be formulated and revised as necessary.

Monitoring and evaluation measures will be developed to ensure effective enforcement. E. Insufficient public awareness and education. Public awareness is important for smooth cleanup of identified PC sites in Jagging, especially those PC sites close to residential complexes. The project Will support necessary public awareness activities, such as video making, newsletters issuance, TV programs, and other public outreach materials and activities. S. Baseline Information in Jagging.