# Physed studies

Explain In your own words what Biometrics Is and how a good understanding of biometrics can benefit an athlete? Biometrics is a branch of sport science, through the understanding of the internal and external forces which act on an athlete effecting their performance. For an athlete learning the functional anatomy and mechanics of movement will help the athlete learn the skill, develop the skill, and to help the athlete be able to correct any errors that may need to fixed. Or example: 1 . Coaches use their understanding of biometrics to make modifications to the athletes performance based on their skill level and body shape. 2. There are guidelines for buying sports equipment, to suit athletes body size. 3. To reduce the chance of over use and Injury through their knowledge of the technique. 2. Discuss Newton’s first Law of Motion and then explain using an example from a sport of your choice. Newton’s first Law of Motion states that and object will not move or change shape unless an outside force acts against it. For example in softball: 1.

The bat will not move unless picked up and swung 2. The base will not change shape until stood on or touched 3. The ball will not move until thrown 3. Using Newton’s second law, explain the relationship between acceleration, mass and the force. Newton’s second law Is the total sum of the mass of the body and It’s acceleration. So If we Increase the mass and Increase the acceleration then the total amount of force will be increased. So therefore if we decrease the mass and decrease the acceleration then the total force will be decreased. For example: .

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In softball, if we use a heavier bat then the swing and connection with the ball will increase the speed in which it travels. 2. In bowling, the heavier a bowling ball then the faster It will travel down the ally increasing speed as it goes. Your choice. Newton’s third and final law of motion is that for every action there is an equal or opposite reaction, meaning that for every force acting on an object there is an opposite reaction. For example in softball: 1. When running to and from bases, you are moving against air resistance and friction with the grass. 2.

When hitting a ball after contact has been made and the ball is traveling against air resistance and gravity, but once they all balance out the ball falls to the ground. AAA. Using the follow headings, choose one skill from a sport of your choice and break down the techniques into the following 3 phases PREPARATION ACTION FOLLOW THROUGH Softball Batting Preparation align knuckles hands placed together at the bottom of the bat place dominate hand on the bottom feet shoulder with apart front foot aligns with the top of the plate stand with your body facing the plate lift back elbow to a 90 degree angle

Action step towards the pitcher rotate hips Just before connecting with the ball lift heal of back foot and rotate ankle for more power swing bat at approximately hip level bat should connect with ball but do keep your eyes on the bat and ball when about to connect Follow Through bat finished on opposite shoulder to it started on hips facing the pitcher completely back leg turned and bent in slightly after power usage. Weight transfers to your front leg as you have used it for power in the hit. B.

Explain how breaking a skill down into 3 phases can help a performer to improve their performance. Wrought, you will enable an athlete to improve their skill level as they are able to focus on the parts that they need help with, it enables a coach to break the skill down so that everyone can understand it no matter the age difference. It will also help the athlete choose the right equipment because of the guidelines that have been created to help you perform the skill to the best of your ability, without much error. . What advice would you give a softball fielder who wants to improve the speed and accuracy of their throw? To gain more speed they would need to use their whole body to throw the ball, not just the shoulder action, so include the crows hop which is a little Jump step, as well as the rotation at the torso, with all of this combined you get a simulation of forces which will help to increased the speed.

They can also use their non throwing arm as a guide to aim who/where they are throwing the ball which will help the accuracy of the throw, if the arm does not help try using your body and leg positioning so they are pointing at the place you are throwing to help with accuracy, you can even combine the two. 7. Consider the softball skills below and describe what motion is used in each action. Justify your answer for each.

Linear Motion, Angular Motion, General Motion Softball pitch (windmill) Softball hit Softball throw Softball pitch (windmill) – general motion Linear motion – as the arm is swung the rest of the body is in the same position. -as stepping forward the whole body moves together in the same direction Angular motion – the rotation on the preferred shoulder as ball is being swung – The circular motion as the arm performs the windmill motion and releasing the ball at the bottom. Softball hit- general motion Linear motion – the upper half of the body stays in the same position while the lower Alfa rotates.

Angular motion – as the bat swings the semi circle rotation at the shoulder and that of the waist is what allows for the force in the hit. Softball throw – general motion Linear motion – when throwing the ball the majority of your body stays in one position or it moves all as one Angular motion – the rotation at the shoulders as the arm comes up over the body in order to gain power is done in a circular motion 8. Research two common sporting injuries associated with a sport of your choice and discuss possible causes and how this could be prevented. Pass. Possible Causes: Involuntary contraction of a muscle. – Altered neuromuscular control – Dehydration – Electrolyte depletion – Poor conditioning – Muscle fatigue Prevention: – Improve fitness and avoid muscle fatigue – Stretch regularly after exercise – Warm up before exercise – Stretch the calf muscle – Stretch the hamstring muscle – Stretch the quadriceps muscle Treatment: – Stop the activity that caused the cramp – Gently stretch and message the cramping muscle – Hold the Joint in a stretched position until the cramp stops. . Blisters – A fluid-filled sack on the surface of the skin Friction on the skin – Moist, warm conditions. – Minimize friction on skin – Appropriate footwear (fitting shoes) – Band aids or tape over problem areas – Petroleum Jelly or talcum powder 3. Concussion – where brain is moved violently within the skull, so brain cells fire at once like a seizure. Severe head trauma – Fall where head strikes against a object – A moving object strikes the head – Sudden induced turning movement (like a blow to the head) – Confusion – Disorientation – Memory Loss – Unconsciousness – Unequal size pupils – Headache – Dizziness – Tinnitus – Nausea – Vomiting Vision Changes Late Symptoms: – Memory disturbances – Poor concentration – Irritability – Sleep disturbances – Personality changes – Fatigue part B 1 . The process of developing from an unskilled performer into a skilled performer involves moving through three distinct phases. This is known as the Fits and Poster Model.

Describe in your own words each of these phases. Use examples from your own sporting experience to explain each phase. PHASE 1: THE COGNITIVE STAGE In this phase the athlete has little ability to analyses or understand what is going on around them or with the skill. The athlete relies heavily on visual and verbal feedback for help, the athlete will be able to perform the skill well a few times in a row, but nine tines out often they will mess up as they are still learning. Advice will need to be give regularly and as soon as possible during the learning stage of the skill.

Not all athletes will pass with stage if they are not motivated, insufficient practice and/or to complex for the athlete. For example: 1 . The beginning tennis player may serve one or two excellent balls, but more often than not, will serve into the net or out of court. 2. The beginner hockey player will trudge with the basics of dribbling, being able to keep it on your stick under control, but will still be able to do it every now and again. This is the practice stage, where the athlete has an understanding of the task and has acquired the basic fundamentals.

At this point the coaches start to focus on extensive practice times, emphasis on the correct timing and the sequencing of movements and patterns. For the athlete their movements patterns become smoother and more refined, there is rapid skill improvement and large errors are eliminated. Feedback has become more specific to the area that needs improvement. Internal feedback assumes greater improvement as is heavily needed in the next stage. For example: 1. The skilled golfer can, on hitting a drive, Judge that it will land on the fairway simply by how it felt on contact and follow-through. The athlete also has the ability to perform a sequence of movements in perfect timing to be able to carry out a more advanced version of that movement (e. G. Indian dribble – hockey).

They are able to carry out skills without being distracted by interference and environment changes. This therefore allows the athlete to no longer pay attention to the skill they are currently performing, but to be able to work on game tactics, strategies and changing the game environment. 1 . The skilled netball, who has a free pass Just outside the goal circle in the final minute of the game, can focus on the positioning of the goalies and their defenses, and team players and their opponents on the circle, rather than having to be concerned how to stand or how the ball should be thrown. . The skilled hockey player is able to maneuver around opponents with the Indian dribble without having to focus on the technique and skill needed but able to focus on the opponents positioning and the whereabouts of their own team mates. 2. Summaries the changes that a performer undergoes as they develop from a beginner to a skilled athlete. Consider the following headings. Instructions Cues Attention Movement patterns Decision Errors Instructions Knowledge of results takes priority. Skilled Performer – Non-verbal and overprotective information is used.

Intrinsic feedback becomes increasingly important. Cues Beginner – Performance is monitored in the main through visual cues. Skilled Performer – Overprotective cues are used increasingly to monitor performance. Beginner – Attention is focused on the control of moments that comprise the total task. Skilled Performer – Automation of movements leaves attention free to focus on environmental cues rather than movement execution. Movement patterns Beginner – Only small, simple movement patterns can be performed successfully.

Skilled Performer – Larger and more complex sequences of movement can be performed. Decision Beginner – The learner is concerned with which movement to make. Skilled Performer – The skilled performer is more concerned with the tactical implications of how the movement is made. Errors Beginner – Performance errors tend to be large, poorly detected and slow to correct. The learner relies on the teacher/coach for assistance. Skilled Performer – Errors become small, and are easily detected and quickly corrected by the performer.