Lake Naivasha Basin is located on the floor of Kenya ‘s Eastern ( Gregorian ) Rift Valley, surrounded by the Kinangop tableland & A ; Aberdares Mountains to the E, and the Mau Escarpment to the West. The lake itself -a Ramsar Site- is the 2nd largest fresh water lake in Kenya after Lake Victoria, positioned at an height of 1884m above sea degree ( Owiti, 2006 ) covering an country of 150kmA? . It ‘s surrounded by a swamp which covers an country of 64kmA? ( Arusei, 2004 ) , depending on sum of rainfall screen hence has an mean deepness of 6m ( 20ft ) , with the deepest country being at Crescent Island, at a maximal deepness of 30m ( 100ft ) .
Since the basin is situated at the bed of the Rift Valley plains between the two Highlandss, its ecological stature deems to be delicate and prone to environmental debasement.However, the Lake Naivasha Basin is rich in biodiversity with three national Parkss ( Mt. Longonot, Hell ‘s Gate and The Aberdares ) , several privately-owned wildlife sanctuaries ( i.e. Oserian Wildlife Sanctuary, Crescent Island Wildlife Sanctuary, Kongoni Game Valley, Elsamere Conservation Centre and Crater Lake Game Sanctuary ) , fertile agro-ecological zones in the upper catchment, protected woods, ecotourism sites and several upland watershed countries. It has three major ecotourism undertakings in Gilgil ( Malewa Trust ) , Kinangop ( FoKP ) and in Kongoni ( Ndamamo Economic Empowerment Group ) as shown in figure.
Its watershed countries serve as good countries for little and big graduated table agribusiness, while 50kmA? of land around the lake is under big scale gardening and widespread cowss farms. Lake Naivasha sustains major economic activities such as touristry, gardening, geothermic power coevals and local piscaries due to its environment holding peculiarity attached with its natural beauty and mild clime. Its favorable climatic conditions, closeness to Nairobi and the fresh H2O lake are characteristics that have prompted large-scale flower farming on the lake shore ( Becht et al, 2006 ) . These similar characteristics make the country attractive for tourers, with largely occupants from Nairobi and from abroad who on a regular basis visit the country.Figure Map of Lake Naivasha catchment and placement of three major ecotourism undertakings ( Beginning: International Lake Environment Committee web site ) .River Malewa, originating from the Aberdare Mountains, and Gilgil River -arising from Dundori highlands- are the chief beginnings of H2O for the lake, while Karati and belowground ooze from the Eastern Mau are secondary beginnings of H2O for the lake. Its water-catchment countries do qualify varied ecological zones that sustain typical home grounds and biological resources that supply to the parts ‘ dazing socio-economic development. The upper catchment countries encompass five woods: Kipipiri, Mau, Eburu, Aberdares and Kinangop.
Naivasha town ( 100km northwest of Nairobi ) is a busy traffic hub of the Nairobi-Kampala main road and a tourer finish.
WWF River Malewa Conservation Project
The World Wide Fund for Nature ( WWF ) is a Global Conservation organisation and NGO. Since 1962, WWF EARPO ( Eastern Africa Regional Programme Office ) which has its central offices in Nairobi has been involved in coordination of legion preservation programmes in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Namibia and Zambia. The River Malewa Conservation Project focuses on issues associating to Ecotourism development, Policy enforcement, heightening rural supports, constructing a civil society, MFS, Natural Resource Management ( NRM ) , Payment for Environmental Services ( PES ) , Integrated Water Resource Management ( IWRM ) and Environmental preservation consciousness and acquisition. The undertaking initiated on 28th August 2000 and is planned to discontinue on 31st December 2010. WWF spouses with cardinal stakeholders such as circuit operators, hotelkeepers, SNV and KWS so as to measure the possibilities of bettering ecotourism in Lake Naivasha Basin, in position of reacting to “ rural hapless poorness ” ( WWF, 2006 ) .
Improved ecotourism around Lake Naivasha Basin is rooted by its rich natural biodiversity, support from the Government and NGOs such as WWF, EAWLS, USAID Ecotourism Kenya and Nature Kenya, every bit good as positive engagement and committedness by the local communities towards ecotourism programmes and/ or undertakings through their CBOs- bulk of whom are the Maasai and Kikuyu folks.
Ecotourism: A Necessity for Bettering Sustainable Supports
Ecotourism is itself a tool for preservation and community development ; therefore it endows socio-economic benefits towards the local communities every bit good as prolonging ecological resource unity through minimal-impact, non-consumptive resource use.
Ecotourism being natural resource-based and capital-intensive, factors for its viability in the Lake Naivasha Basin comprise of: entrepreneurship, substructure, cordial reception, selling, security, land ownership, fiscal capital, security and status of resources. Nevertheless, sing local communities who are seldom cognizant of ecotourism businesses/ enterprises, or to revolutionise subsistent land-use patterns into ecotourism, or utilizing their peanut-earned incomes into ecotourism investing without any confidence of returns is still a major challenge for the local communities who rely on small-scale subsistence agriculture for deficient incomes.Therefore, there is the demand to animate the local communities and land proprietors to take up ecotourism initiatives/ undertakings. Community mobilisation, capacity edifice and consciousness is a challenge which requires solid engagement if non confidences.Furthermore, it has been seen that the Lake Naivasha ecosystem is sing menaces from H2O pollution: chemical wastes from flower farms ; and largely as a consequence of dirt sedimentations eroded from the upper catchments where deforestation, cultivation on steep inclines and riparian land continues indebting to weak execution of authorities policies with regard to preservation attempts.
To place the ecotourism activities and participants within the BasinHow ecotourism can be integrated into community developmentHow ecotourism could hold been integrated into the IWRM plans for River MalewaTo look into the grade of ecotourism consciousnessTo happen out the extent of committedness by local communities towards ecotourism activitiesTo happen out the degree of satisfaction by people towards ecotourism in their vicinitiesHow people at that place perceive ecotourism development.
Scope of Research Study
This research explores the position of improved ecotourism in Lake Naivasha Basin. The theoretical model used in the survey is based on findings by Michaelidou et Al. ( 2002 ) : the Interdependence Hypothesis, which implies that there is mutuality between environmental preservation and community endurance and that both should be every bit intertwined so as to profit, every bit good as size uping the potency of improved ecotourism in the survey countries.
The common dependance of touristry and the physical and societal environment is important to the hereafter of each.
Tourism is a service industry whose primary resource is environments and civilizations which differ from those where the tourers normally live ( Grabun, 1989 p.21 ) . Tourism is non merely a powerful tool for socio-economic development but besides an facet in the physical environment every bit good ( Okech, 2009 ) , hence it has the power to better the environment, supply financess for preservation, continue civilization and history, to put sustainable usage bounds and to protect the natural attractive forces.Sustainable touristry on the whole strives to complement and convey together issues of intergenerational equity, and the ends of economic growing, environmental protection and societal justness. It recognizes the demand for equity between local persons and groups, and between hosts and invitees ( Mbaiwa, 2005 p.203 ) . Bramwell and Lane ( 1993, p.
2 ) came up with four basic elements that are critical to the construct of sustainable touristry, which includes: holistic planning & A ; scheme preparation ; saving of indispensable ecological procedures ; protection of human heritage & A ; biodiversity ; and sustained productiveness over the long term for the future coevalss. Reacting to the negative environmental impacts that have emerged as a consequence of mass touristry and uniform selling, touristry industry participants and research workers have began to recommend sustainable touristry. This facet puts greater accent on development that is peculiarly sensitive to the long-run good of the natural and socio-cultural environments, while still recognizing the fiscal benefits for the host community. In this mode, touristry must be planned and managed in such a mode that is natural and cultural environments are non depleted or degraded, but maintained as feasible resources on a lasting footing for uninterrupted usage ( Butler, 1993 p.
27 ; Murphy, 1998 p.173 ; Wall, 1997 p.33 ) .
Ecotourism on the other manus is one type of touristry that is quickly increasing in popularity around the Earth, particularly in developing states. Ecotourism is defined by The International Ecotourism Society as “ Travel to natural countries that conserves the environment and sustains the wellbeing of local people ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ecotourism.org/index2.
php? what-is-ecotourism ) . “ Ecotourism must lend to the preservation of natural countries and the sustainable development of next countries and communities, and it should bring forth farther environmental and conservation consciousness among resident populations and visitants ” ( World Tourism Organization, 2000 ) . Newsome, Moore, and Dowling ( 2002, p.14 ) province: “ the primary ends of ecotourism are to foster sustainable usage through resource preservation, cultural resurgence and economic development and variegation ” . Newsome, Moore, and Dowling ( 2002, p.
15 ) further reference five rules of ecotourism, and province: “ Ecotourism is nature-based, ecologically sustainable, environmentally educative, locally good and generates tourist satisfaction ” . Therefore, it potentially provides a sustainable attack to development. The recent haste in popularity of improved ecotourism has much to make with the hunt for a richer vacation experience by the invitee ( Okech, 2007 ) hence Kenya being a good illustration of one of the innovators in ecotourism. Kenya gave rise to one of Africa ‘s earliest experiments in community-based preservation utilizing park and touristry grosss and began the first attempts to systematically adopt ecotourism rules and patterns in its national park system ( Honey, 2008 ) .However, sustainable touristry should non be confused with ecotourism in that sustainable touristry by and large embraces all sections of the industry with guidelines and standards that seek and cut down environmental impacts, peculiarly the usage of non-renewable beginnings, utilizing mensurable benchmarks, and to better touristry ‘s part to sustainable development and environmental preservation ( Global Development Research Centre, 2008 ) . Ecotourism is a sub-category of sustainable touristry, which contains the educational, sustainable and nature-based constituents, and provides local benefits- environmentally, culturally and economically.
Ecotourism and Conservation
Green Tourism and Ecotourism
Harmonizing to Marris ( 2001, p.5 ) , “ CBET is touristry that is based on a combination of both cultural and natural attractive forces. It hence normally takes topographic point in natural countries and involves local communities which still retain traditional civilizations and which actively participate in the development and direction of touristry activities ” . From this definition, we see that the local community has important engagement in its direction and development of ecotourism resources in a manner that most of the benefits accrued remain in the community.Community-based ecotourism in Kenya is still at its development stages, holding been initiated by the KWS Community Section.In many parts, the people who live in or around the national Parkss in Kenya have formed local community ecotourism undertakings, which are cultural and resource Centres where tourers are allowed into a folk ‘s small town by paying an admittance fee ( Honey, 1999 ) .
Harmonizing to the WWF Tourism Position Statement ( WWF International, 2001 p.
3 ) , it mentions that: “ WWF and the touristry industry should portion a common end: the long-run saving of the natural environment. This presents a vision that touristry development and pattern should be portion of a wider sustainable development scheme ; be compatible with effectual preservation of natural ecosystems ; and affect local people and civilizations, guaranting that they have an just portion in its benefits ” . From this statement, WWF really does acquire involved in CBET projects/ enterprises chiefly through facilitation of the CBOs involved. This can be in signifier of policy preparation and intercession ; ecotourism instruction & A ; environmental preservation consciousness programmes ; capacity edifice ; IWRM ; and tour usher preparation.
In lake Naivasha Basin, WWF facilitates CBOs prosecuting in ecotourism undertakings through Ecotourism development ; Policy enforcement ; heightening rural supports ; constructing a civil society ; MFS ; Natural Resource Management ( NRM ) ; Payment for Environmental Services ( PES ) ; IWRM ; and Environmental preservation consciousness and larning for rural communities.
Normally, those members of the community who have experience and/ or cognition on ecotourism, community/ rural development and preservation are involved in the undertaking or endeavor. In this instance, those community members with no official nor business-related understandings need to be corresponded by their spouses ( communities ) with the needful expertness, and with facilitation from organisations such as KWS, EAWLS, WWF, Ecotourism Kenya, Nature Kenya, USAID among others with similar functions.With the sufficient facilitation for CBET undertakings, finally the local community benefits will entwine with ecological sustainability. Fennell ( 1999, p.24 ) references that “ Sustainable touristry development is improbable to happen unless the people from rural communities work together so as to do it go on.
There appears to be a certain understanding that if sustainability is to happen at all, it must be done at the local degree, and possibly shaped slackly by a broader national or international policy ” . Therefore, the local communities will comprehend the significance of preservation if they enjoy the benefits accrued from CBET.The tabular array below shows several degrees of community engagement in ecotourism in the basin, as corresponded by HO“usler and Strasdas ( 2003 ) . They include:Table: Possible Community Involvement in the ecotourism endeavor
Type of Enterprise/ Institution
Nature of local engagement
Private concern run by foreignersEmploymentSupply of good and servicesKitchen staff in a LodgeSale of nutrient, edifice stuffs2.Enterprise or informal sector operation run by local personsEnterprise ownershipSelf-employmentSupply of goods and servicesCraft gross revenues, nutrient boothCampsite, place corsetsSteering servicesHawking, sale of fuel wood, nutrient3.Community endeavorCorporate ownershipCorporate or single directionSupply of goods and servicesEmployment or contributed laborsCommunity campgroundCraft CentreCultural CentreGuest house4.Joint venture between community and private operatorContractual committednesss or shared ownershipShare in grossLease/ investing of resourcesEngagement in decision-makingRevenue-sharing from Lodge and/ or tour operation to local community on agreed footingsCommunity leases land/ resources/ grant to lodge/ tour operationCommunity holds equity in lodge/ circuit operation5.Tourism planning organic structureConsultationRepresentationEngagementLocal Consultation in regional touristry planning ( e.
g. FoKP )Community representatives on touristry board and in planning forumsBeginning: HO“usler and Strasdas, 2003.
Tourism in Kenya
Tourism is progressively going a important economic tool in most states in this universe. It contributes about 5 % of GDP and 4 % of entire employment in Kenya ( World Economic Forum, 2008 ) . In malice of the apparently low part, nevertheless, the general touristry economic system, which captures the backward and forward linkages, contributes 11.6 % of GDP.
The sector besides contributes to about 23 % in foreign exchange net incomes and employs approximately 253,000 people in the modern pay sector ( World Trade and Tourism Council, 2007 ) . Furthermore, a big per centum of the universe ‘s population is going more reliant on this industry and its sustained feasibleness. Harmonizing to The International Ecotourism Society ( TIES ) , touristry is the largest concern sector in the universe economic system, responsible for over 230 million occupations and over 10 % of gross domestic merchandise worldwide.
On a planetary graduated table, harmonizing to the UNWTO, international tourer reachings fell by 4 % in 2009 to 880 million. This represents a little betterment as a consequence of the 2 % upswing in the last one-fourth of 2009. In contrast, international tourer reachings shrank by 10 % , 7 % and 2 % in the first three quarters of 2009 severally ( UNWTO, 2010 ) . In the first two months of 2010, the international tourer reachings reached a sum of 119 million, taging an addition of 6.25 % compared to 2009.Kenya has become more and more of a popular tourer finish for visitants from Europe, South-east Asia, North America and emerging tourist-generating parts such as South America. By December 2009, touristry grosss had raked in an estimated Sh.
62.46 billion compared to 2007 ‘s Sh. 65.4 billion and 2008 ‘s Sh.
52.71 ( KTB, 2010 ) . In the first two months of 2010, international reachings to Kenya reported a growing of 18 % compared to 2009 ( UNWTO, 2010 ) .
Visitor reachings in 2009 increased to 1.8 million compared to 1.2 million in 2008, bespeaking a 50 % recovery rate ensuing from the post-election force which erupted in early 2008 and negatively affected the industry. During the first half of 2010, visitant reachings rose to 483,000 compared to 477,000 in 2007, with most visitants geting from the UK, Germany, Italy, France and the United States.In recent yesteryear old ages, the touristry industry has seen an exceeding growing. Between 2003 and 2006, the mean growing rate was 9.8 % compared to 5.
4 % for Africa and 3.2 % for planetary touristry ( Ikiara et al, 2007 ) . Tourism gross grew by 14.9 % in 2006 and catch gardening to go the taking foreign exchange earner, with net incomes of Sh. 56.
2 billion ( Kenya Economic Report, 2009 ) .The tabular array below shows the flow of cardinal economic indexs utilizing the latest available information, with touristry lending to 5 % of GDP.Table: Cardinal Economic Indexs 2003-2009
Population ( 1000000s )
Population Growth Rate ( % )
GDP per capita ( US $ at current monetary values )
GDP ( US $ bn. at current monetary values )
GDP growing at changeless monetary values ( % )
Inflation Rate ( % )
Exchange Rate: Annual mean Kenyan shillings to US $
3168.3678.04Beginnings: KNBS, Oanda.com, World Development Indexs
The Vision 2030 is a long-run development scheme which was launched by the Government of Kenya in 2008. Known as the authorities ‘s ‘development design ‘ , the scheme is being run from 2008 boulder clay 2030.
It aims to “ transform Kenya into a freshly industrializing, middle-income state supplying a high quality life to all its citizens by the twelvemonth 2030, doing it a globally competitory state.It aims to hold touristry as a taking sector in the economic system, hence to be one of the top 10 tourer finishs in the universe. It besides intends to raise the figure of international visitants from 1.8 million in 2009 to 3 million in 2012 whereas increasing mean exhausted per visitant from the present Sh. 45,000 to at least Sh. 70,000 hence addition hotel beds from 40,000 to at least 65,000, merged with emphasis on top-notch service quality.
Tourism Policies back uping Tourism Improvement
If Kenya is to better its touristry public presentation and compete as among the best long-haul finishs on a planetary graduated table, so an mixture of policy intercessions are to be anticipated ( Beginning: Ministry of Tourism study, 2009 ) :Domestic touristry should be promoted alongside international touristry through aggressive runs and monetary value derived functions, among other intercessions. More surveies are needed so as to understand what sort of touristry merchandises would be preferred to domestic tourers e.
g. periodic cultural events and festivals.Kenya should guarantee that demand for adjustment installations is ever higher than supply. This can be executed through hiking selling while restricting supply. Kenya should besides endeavor to advance low density-high value merchandises in cardinal tourer circuits such as Amboseli and the Maasai Mara National Parks. Further investing in tourer installations should be discouraged while the bing 1s should be upgraded and the monetary values adjusted upwards to deter high volumes while raising value. In order to ease controlled development, transporting capacity surveies should be conducted as an issue of doggedness for the major tourer circuits and reserves/ Parkss.
It ‘s indispensable that ecotourism development countries to be clearly defined and prioritized, with direction programs to be formulated and adopted. The proposal for place corsets and resort metropoliss as included in the state ‘s long term development scheme: the Vision 2030 are all good proposals, but they should seek to keep demand in front of supply.Necessity for huge capacity edifice and judicial admission of microfinance or concessional capital so as to fuel local engagement in touristry ventures. Tax incentives and affirmatory action may be good.Inclination to reason and consecrate the touristry policy along with the needed statute law for effectual executing, including pro-active policy engagement, planing an sophisticated inducement bundle for touristry investings, and implanting competition and engineering transportation. These intercessions should be in line with the Vision 2030.
The inducements should direct investings into new circuits ( for case western Kenya ) , new ecotourism merchandises for sustainable development and local community engagement.Synchronism of touristry developing course of study should be undertaken and implemented quickly so as to ease service quality in touristry. There is demand to present and spread out new preparation classs so as to fit the altering demands of the touristry industry.
The state ‘s concern environment should be improved. Therefore, substructure should be improved ( roads, airdromes, railroads, energy etc. ) and simplify and cut down license demands. Regional incorporation demands to be fast-tracked by selling of East Africa as a exclusive finish, therefore explicating a regional classification and regulative standards, reforming and harmonizing of ordinances on motion of tourer vehicles across boundary lines and within regional background, and launching of a regional tourer visa.Aggressive publicity of International touristry through increased budgetary allotments. This is to increase tourer reachings to the desired 3 million by 2012.
Last but non least, security is an of import facet. There is demand to increase capacity in the Tourist Police Unit through client service. Rigorous steps are required to be taken so as to relieve drug maltreatment every bit good as sexual development of kids in touristry.Even if the policy intercessions are being exercised, the UN ‘s Tourism Act of 2002 -which contains a maestro program for touristry development- , is still non to the full adopted by the Kenyan policy shapers hence the industry is regulated by a few scattered references in different pieces of statute law ( Table ) ( Zhaliazniak, 2009 ) .Table Pieces of statute law that oversee the touristry industry in Kenya ( Zhaliazniak, 2009 p.15 )
in Laws of Kenya
Name of the legal papers
CAP 381Tourist industry Licensing ActLicensing of touristry endeavorsCAP 494Hotels and Restaurants ActSpecifies conditions for licensing and ordinanceCAP 376Wildlife Conservation and Management ActLooks into touristry endeavors within Parkss and militiasCAP 8Environmental Management and Coordination ActProvides guidelines on where a touristry site is allowed to be setCAP 382Kenya Tourist Development AuthorityProvides for the apparatus of Kenya Tourist Development Corporation, which is charged with the undertaking of proviso of fiscal installations and consultative services to the touristry industry.
Tourism in Lake Naivasha Basin
Ecotourism Products and Activities
The tabular array below outlines the Ecotourism merchandises and activities within L. Naivasha Basin.
Friends of Kinangop Plateau ( FoKP ) “ Gateway to Development ”
Murungaru Location, Central Division, Nyandarua District, Central Province
Founded in 2007, FoKP is an SSG, with activities focused on preservation of endemic bird species. It presently has over 10,000 members from 24 self-help groups which are housed by FoKP. They include: Uhuru Women Group, Mwihoti Youth Initiatives, Engineer Broad Vision, Ukweli SHG, Murungaru Water Harvesting Agriculture, Mutaratara SHG, Paphrling-KERS, Machinery Young Farmers, Mumui SHG, Kimrui Volley Team, KAG Church, Kuria Mutego Dam, Aragwai Co-op Society, Waithima, Guphabai SHG, Kimuri, Bidii Dam, Mikaro Bee Keepers, Mazhinda Dam, Faru Dam, Githunguri Dam and Kimuri Dairy Group.
Despite the SHGs and big figure of members, there are merely 15 community ushers involved in ecotourism while 17 are in cultural touristry. However, potency of ecotourism development is apparent through presence of a mini-museum with historical points of the Kikuyu folk and colonialists ; research tourists chiefly from Europe and Kenya ; endemic bird species ; bird migration to dams ; past history of the “ white ” Highlandss ; good position points for the Rift Valley ; adjustment at Kinangop Guest House and Ecotourism Bandas at FoKP Centre. Agro touristry is on the grapevine through beehive and fish agriculture. Their chief facilitators are WWF and Nature Kenya every bit good as CDTF and USAID. This topographic point is ideal for bird lovers, with visitants largely from the UK and Holland.
Home plate: Ecotourism Bandas at FoKP Murungaru Centre ( left ) and a subdivision of the Mini Museum exposing some humanistic disciplines & A ; artefacts.
Table 1: Ecotourism Merchandises and Activities within Lake Naivasha Basin
Name OF ORGANIZATION/ GROUP
REGISTRATION OF GROUP
1.Friends of Kinangop Plateau ( FoKP )CBO/ SSGMini museumKinangop Guest HouseBandas/ tented cantonmentsConserved treesImportant Bird Area ( IBA )Man-made dikeBritish colonial placesCavesBird observationCultural dances/ public presentationsBeehive agricultureHiking/ jauntsNature preservation2.Hells Gate National Park ( KWS )ParastatalWildlife ( zebra, American bison, eland, gazelle, baboons, hartebeest, leopards )103 bird speciesMervyn Carnelley Raptor HideFischer ‘s towerThe Lower GorgeOl Karia Geothermal StationTourist Circuits, nature trails & A ; picnic sitesNaivasha Airstrip ( Govt.
of Kenya )CampingRock mountingCyclingHiking & A ; trekkingGame driveBird observationPicnicing3.Mt. Longonot National Park ( KWS )ParastatalMt. LongonotVolcanic craterHot springsWildlife ( American bison, Thompsons gazelle, camelopard, guinea poultries, zebras )400 bird speciesSome reptilians ( gecko & A ; serpents )Lodia Safari Airstrip ( private )HikingRock/ mountain mountingBicyclingBird observationGame watching4.South L. Naivasha Boats Ecotourism ProjectPrivate/ personFisherman ‘s CampLake Naivasha( Motorized ) boatsBird speciesWildlife ( river horse, monkeys )Olkaria Cultural CentreBird observationCampingBoat campaignFishingSun sedativesLake shoreline walk5.Geta CFA Ecotourism undertakingCBOAberdare MountainsKipipiri HillBandas/ tented cantonmentsGeta Forest Guest HouseProtected countriesWildlife ( colobus monkeys )CavesMountain hiking/ jauntsCave geographic expeditionCultural/ historical activitiesNature preservationCamping6.Aberdares National Park ( KWS )ParastatalWildlife ( elephant, king of beasts, Canis aureus, guib, waterbuck, ness American bison, colobus monkey, forest pig, leopard, shrub duiker, eland, bongo, olive baboon, sykes monkey, mountain reedbuck )Crowns LodgeAberdare scopesSelf-help banda sitesPicnic sites250+ bird speciesAirstrips in Nyeri & A ; MweigaMountain hikeGame drive ( 4WD )PicnicingCamping in moorlandsBird observation7.
Upper Turasha Conservation GroupCBOBakeryAberdare scopesHome corsetsCavesCommunity Centre ( Kenyahwe house )Tree baby’s roomsWildlife ( elephants from wood )Agro forestryBaking and merchandising of staff of life, barsCave geographic expeditionMountain climbing/ boostingBird observation8.Oloika Women GroupCBOManyattasMaasai CommunitySavanna fieldsHandicraftsBird speciesCavesHome corsetsCultural dancesAgro touristryCave geographic expeditionBird observationCamping9.Malewa Bush Ventures/ Malewa TrustTrustRiver MalewaMalewa River LodgeCaanvas bungalowsTents/ cantonmentsProvidingConference installationsWildlife ( zebras, camelopard etc.
)RappelingTeam edifice & A ; challenge classsCampingRock mountingWaterfall/ landscape singPicnicingSchools ‘ outdoor programmes10.Kigio Wildlife ConservancyTrustKigio Wildlife CampMalewa Wildlife LodgeWildlife ( warthog, American bison, Aepyceros melampus, grant, Thompsons gazelle, eland, leopard, hyaena, Hippo )250+ bird speciesRiver MalewaNature walksGame thrustsBicyclingBush breakfast & A ; tiffinFishingCampingBush jaunts11.Mt. Longonot Adventures ( K ) Ltd.
PartnershipCurio Shop [Mt. LongonotVolcanic craterHot springsWildlife ( American bison, Thompsons gazelle, camelopard, guinea poultries, zebras )400 bird speciesSome reptilians ( gecko & A ; serpents )Oloongonot campgroundHikingRock/ mountain mountingMountain BikingBird observationGame watchingCamping12.Enaiborr Ajijik, LabarakCBO3000 estates of natural wood ( Olosho Rongai )Nature trailsButterfly farmsWildlife ( baboons, monkeys, serpents )Beehive farmsBird speciesHiking/ trekkingTraditional dances/ public presentationsButterfly and beehive agriculture ( learning how to reap honey )Camping13.
Elsamere CentreTrustElsamere Lodge8 bungalowsL. NaivashaConservation CentreWildlife ( serpents, Hippo, warthog, zebra, camelopard )Conservation instructionWildlife singFishing14.Oserian Wildlife SanctuaryPrivateChui LodgeKiangazi HouseOserian Flower Farm23000 estates of wildlife sanctuary ( leopard, warthog, camelopard, zebra, Thompsons gazelle, Aepyceros melampus, baboon, serval cat, white rhino, chetah etc. )320+ bird speciesScenic Rift Valley fieldsEntree to Mt. Longonot & A ; Hells Gate National ParksOserian Airstrip ( private )Wildlife preservation programmesCommunity outreach programmesGame screening, game driveBird observation15.Kongoni Game ValleyPrivateBritish colonial farm housePili Pili bungalowsWildlife Reserve ( private )Wildlife ( Aepyceros melampus, zebra, leopard, antelope, American bison, camelopard, Hippo etc. )Bird speciesHorseback equitationWildlife ConservationGuided twenty-four hours & A ; dark campaign walks & A ; thrustsBoat drivesSundowners, picnickingMountain bikingTour of Naivasha flower farm16.Crescent Island Wildlife SanctuaryPrivateVolcanic craterL.
NaivashaWildlife ( camelopard, Thompsons gazelle, elands, waterbucks & A ; pythons but no marauders )Bird speciesEntree by boat & A ; causewayNature trailsBoat rides to & A ; from islandWildlife singBird observationTreking
Hells Gate National Park
Hells Gate Location, Central Division, Naivasha District, Rift Valley Province.
Managed by KWS, it is the second smallest national park, but yet the lone park in Kenya where cycling and walking without any official KWS bodyguard is allowed. Of late, KWS is implementing the community outreach through preparation of local community circuit ushers, edifice schools, preservation instruction and patronizing well-performing pupils, hence bridging the spread between the two stakeholders. This interprets a win-win relationship.
The new ecotourism merchandise packaging includes: cycling, encampment, stone mounting, mountain mounting, hike, picnicking, hotel-linked shrub breakfast and sundowners.On one-year footing, they organize the “ Hells Gate on a Wheelbarrow ” competitions from which money accrued from the event goes to building of a Conservation Centre within the park. The 2010 event was successful, holding earned Sh. 7 million.
Home plate: Fischer ‘s Tower & A ; Lower Gorge behind ( left ) , and participants in the one-year “ Heels Gate on a Wheelbarrow ” 2010 event.
Harmonizing to the Senior Warden, they assist communities in the proposal development and urging them to possible support programmes.
They besides train and integrate them e.g. ushers and porters, hence mobilisation of the community groups.
KWS in Hells Gate still continues to make consciousness on ecotourism & A ; preservation and exchange programmes on what feasible undertakings can be undertaken. They train and capacity build the local communities on direction functions- facilitating joint ventures between the communities and ecotourism stakeholders.Plans to build an Eco-lodge within the park are on the grapevine.
Table: Park entry fees for Hells Gate National ParkCitizensKshs.ResidentsKshs.Non-residentsUS $Adults20050025Childs10025010Students10025010Beginning: Booklet for Hells Gate N. Park
Longonot National Park
Longonot Location, Maii Mahiu Division, Naivasha District, Rift Valley Province.
This park, managed by KWS, encircles Mt. Longonot- a hibernating volcanic mountain which peaks at 2780m above sea degree. Visitors chiefly come to see the volcanic crater at the top of the mountain, every bit good as hike and cycling.In 2004, KWS had launched an Ecotourism Youth Community Project which aimed at developing the young person from community in circuit guiding, stone mounting and bird observation & A ; designation. The undertaking ab initio had 100 members.
Presently, KWS is back uping Mt. Longonot Adventures ( K ) Ltd. group through preparation and facilitation programmes.
Home plate: Entrance to Mt. Longonot N. Park ( left ) , and position of Mt.
Longonot from Naivasha-Nairobi main road.
Table: Park entry fees for Mt. Longonot N. ParkCitizensKshs.ResidentsKshs.Non-residentsUS $Adults20050025Childs10025010Students10025010Beginning: Booklet for Mt.
Longonot N. Park
South L. Naivasha Boats Ecotourism Project
Olkaria Location, Kongoni Division, Naivasha District, Rift Valley Province
It is a member of Ecotourism Kenya. Based within locality of Fisherman ‘s Camp and privately-owned, it includes a Beach Management ( BMU ) and Anti-poaching unit. The group advocates protecting and re-establishing riparian entree corridors around L. Naivasha.The group usually offers boat campaign, fishing and nature Tourss.
Home plate: Boats used by South Lake group ( left ) , and Camping & A ; picnic site at Fisherman ‘s Camp Naivasha
Harmonizing to the proprietor -Mr. David Kilo- ecotourism is still a new construct to some countries, which need to be given precedence for sustainable development every bit far as touristry around the lake is concerned.Charges for boating are Sh. 1500 for half an hr upper limit of 8 individuals, and Sh. 3000 for 1 hr upper limit of 8 individuals. Bicycles can besides be hired for Sh. 500 a twenty-four hours.
Geta CFA Ecotourism Project
Mukungi Location, North Kinangop Constituency, Nyandarua District, Central Province
Geta Community Forest Association ( CFA ) is a CBO which houses several colony strategies: Geta, Kitiri, Nandarasi, Wanjohi, Miharati, Mawingu, Mikaro and Gatundu colony strategies. Ecotourism is still at its development stage. So far, the CBO has developed a Wildlife and Ecotourism Development Programme which aims at bettering community supports through sustainable wildlife & A ; forest direction and income-generating ecotourism activities while minimising human-wildlife struggles. The Wildlife and Ecotourism Programme is shown in Annex 6 ( Beginning: Geta Forest Management Plan 2009-2014 ) .The Geta Forest and the larger Aberdare Forest are richly endowed with abundant wildlife, caves and scenic beauty which are all major tourer attractive forces. Diverse fauna evident in the forest gives it a high potency for ecotourism development.
The Kenyan Forest Act of 2005 subdivision 47 ( 2a ) specifies that communities can come in into a direction understanding with the Director ( of KWS ) which bestows upon the association forest user rights to ship on ecotourism and recreational activities. Ecotourism merchandises identified include: shrines, waterfalls, position points, shooting sites, bird observation sites, caves and boosting forest trails as shown in Table below. Ease of handiness, connectivity and its strategic geographical place are other factors that contribute to ecotourism development in the part.Table: Ecotourism Sites and Activities in Geta Forest
ALTITUDE ( M )
ClogKitiriN. KinangopKenya Pencil2625Campsite and Tourist HotelClogMutubioN. KinangopMutubio3199Filming, bird observation, picnickingMihatoMihatoMakumbiMarimu Valley3234EcotourismKiambogoMihatoClogRua-marimu3270EcotourismKipipiriIhigaKiambogoScout Peak3375Hiking and bivouacingClogMuthagiraWanjohiMelono stone2666Rock mountingClogSofia GriffinWanjohiSofia Griffin2491LodgeBushGathureWanjohiView Point3014View pointClogNjangiriWanjohiJaneiro2700WaterfallClogGathimaWanjohiGathima2938CavesKamirangiKamuringaN. KinangopKamirangi vale2750Caves & A ; stone mountingMekaroKanjuiriN.
KinangopKanjuiri stone3182Photograph pickings, birds & A ; shootingManungaNdoroboKipipiriNdorobo2942Colobus monkey screening, waterfall & A ; position point, bird observation, instruction TourssClogKirimaKipipiriKirima2992Caves, bivouacing siteForest OneKanyotuKipipiriKanyotu2640LodgeMikeuMikeuClogGetei2729Kiere caveMikeuMikeuClogLower Mikeu2903Wang’ae cave ( 100m from entry to issue ) , Kangui FallsKagongoKagongoClogKagongo, R. Wanjohi3498Kangui Cave, Gatuku Falls, CavesBeginning: Geta Forest Management Plan ( 2009-2014 )
Aberdares National Park
Cardinal Highlands, Kinangop Division, Nyandarua District, Central Province
It is a wilderness park managed by KWS. It encircles the Aberdare Ranges which extends from the Laikipia Escarpments ( nor’-east of Naivasha ) down to Kinangop Plateau ( E of Naivasha ) , approximately 60km long. Geta Forest is besides in Aberdares, construing that KWS does back up CBET through facilitation by preparation of community ushers & A ; lookouts.
The park is gifted with a huge array of vegetations and zoologies, every bit good as attractive forces such as bamboo brushs, caves, waterfalls, mist-covered Moors, thick wood and wildlife ( including the Big Five ) .Table: Park Entry Fees for Aberdares N. ParkCitizensKshs.ResidentsKshs.Non-residentsUS $Adults300100050Childs10050025Students10020015Beginning: Booklet for Aberdares N. ParkOn one-year footing, KWS in concurrence with Rhino Ark Charitable Trust, form the Rhino Charge Challenge whereby 4X4 vehicles conflict through obstructions, shrub paths and circuits.
Fundss from the event go to electric fence of the park so as to avoid human-wildlife struggles, re-afforestation programmes every bit good as bettering community supports.KWS besides works with KFS on issues sing forest and biodiversity protection and preservation.
Home plate: Electric fencing dividing Aberdares Park from community small towns ( left ) , and Off-road path taking to the Park from Miharati.
Upper Turasha Conservation Group
Njabini Location, Kinangop Division, Kinangop District, Central Province
This is a CBO presently representing of 24 members -14 of who are adult females and young person. Their chief function was to turn tree seedlings for agro forestry on the ecologically-sensitive cultivated cragged landscape which besides serves as a water-catchment country for R. Turasha -a tributary to R. Malewa which drains into L. Naivasha.
In this instance, their function is potentially of import for keeping the H2O degree of the lake.Their bakeshop concern is conveying good returns.However, they are sing ecotourism as an option. This is evidenced by handiness of an old big farm house which can be used as a Community Ecotourism Resource Centre ; nearby Aberdare Forest where activities such as hike and undermine geographic expedition can be done ; wildlife such as elephants & A ; monkeys which are spotted on occasion ; and colonial history/ cultural touristry.The community are positive towards prosecuting in ecotourism concern.
Home plate: Members of Upper Turasha Group at their Bakery ( left ) and the proposed Community Resource Centre
Oloika Women Group
Ndabibi Location, Eburru Division, Naivasha District, Rift Valley Province
Formed in 1997, this is a CBO housed by Ndamamo Economic Empowerment GroupMalewa TrustKigio Wildlife ConservancyMt. Longonot Adventures ( K ) LtdEnaiborr Ajijik, LabarakElsamere CentreOserian Wildlife SanctuaryKongoni Game ValleyCrescent Island Wildlife Sanctuary
Potential Ecotourism Sites
Properties of Improved Ecotourism
Incorporate Water Resource Management ( IWRM )
“ Water is life. No H2O, no hereafter.
Water is for all. ” These statements confirm the critical importance of H2O, in peculiar fresh H2O to human life ( Fellizar, 2003 ) . Some 2 billion people in the universe are confronting H2O deficits ( Fellizar, 2003 ) and it has been noted that H2O is acquiring scarcer due to excessive unsustainable usage ; and that H2O quality is decreasing due to insanitary human patterns and hapless direction of family, hotel, industrial and agricultural wastes. It is estimated that by 2025, a figure of states will be excessively dry to keep rates of current utilizations ( CSD, 1997 ) .The by and large accepted definition of sustainable development “ is development which meets the demands of the present, without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands ” ( Brundtland Report, 1987 ; quoted from the White Paper on Environmental Management for South Africa, 1997 ) .
IWRM is besides defined as “ a procedure which promotes the co-ordinated development and direction of H2O, land and related resources, in order to maximise the attendant economic and societal public assistance in an just mode without compromising the sustainability of critical ecosystems ” ( Jonker, 2002 ) . This would connote that natural characteristics such as air current, rainfall among other natural procedures can non or is non possible to be managed ; whereas human activities can be managed. For this ground, a proper description of Integrated Water Resources Management would be to “ pull off people ‘s activities in a mode that promotes sustainable development ( improves supports without interrupting the H2O rhythm ) ” ( Alfarra, 2004 ) .High economic value around the Lake Naivasha basin has been generated by largely touristry and gardening, hence it has created clang of involvements between the assorted stakeholders i.
e. flower husbandmans, touristry participants, local husbandmans, upper catchment, urban people etc. hence bring forthing more force per unit area on the quality and H2O degree of the lake. The IWRM program for Lake Naivasha Basin which had been implemented between 2002 and 2005 has helped in turn toing and work outing the jobs impacting the country. It targeted the H2O catchment countries. In this instance, the downstream H2O users within the Basin rely on the upstream communities who are charged with the protection of the water partings so as to guarantee equal H2O flow for downstream public-service corporation.
However, small was touched on the touristry and ecotourism portion.
Ecotourism integrated into IWRM Plans
RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
Design and Plan of Data Collection
Surveies lending to this thesis were a combination of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. A holistic methodological attack was used with a position of turn toing affairs sing ecotourism and its potencies, the Government ‘s Vision 2030 and relevant ecotourism stakeholders. The research was conducted in line with the programmes organized by the WWF EARPO.
The reappraisal of bing literature included descriptions of touristry in Kenya ( with the Vision 2030 touching on touristry ) , touristry policy intercessions, facets of sustainable touristry and ecotourism, community-based ecotourism and IWRM. These secondary information was gathered from reappraisals of official paperss, text books, academic diaries ( Diaries of Sustainable Tourism -JOST ) , statistics and printed promotional and selling stuffs.
Face-to-face interviews were conducted to a figure of ecotourism stakeholders such as the Government, NGOs, hotelkeepers and CBOs.
The list of interviewees is provides in Annex 1.
Field Work/ Studies
This included organized extended Tourss within the lake basin by sing cardinal countries such as Naivasha, Longonot, Aberdares, Malewa, Moi-ndabi, and Kigio. Data was gathered through the disposal of questionnaires which were dispatched to randomly-selected community members and stakeholder groups. These groups were pre-identified by WWF Naivasha. Group treatments with the local communities were undertaken. Photographs were besides taken during the field Tours.
Table: Topographic points visited within Lake Naivasha Basin
Organization/ Hospitality Outlet
1.North L. NaivashaLangalanga, GilgilMalewa Bush Ventures16-07-2010Karunga, GilgilKigio Wildlife Conservancy19-07-2010N. NaivashaGreat Rift Valley Lodge02-07-20102.Naivasha townNaivashaLabelle Inn26-05-2010NaivashaJaza Guest Resort02-06-2010NaivashaL. Naivasha Panorama02-06-2010NaivashaL.
Naivasha Country Club04-06-2010NaivashaL. Naivasha Resort04-06-20103.South L. NaivashaKongoniHells Gate National Park13-07-2010LongonotMt. Longonot National Park14-07-2010LongonotMt.
Longonot Adventures Ltd.14-07-2010Moi-ndabiOloika Women Group27th & A ; 28th JulyLabarakEnaiborr Ajijik Community28-05-2010OserianChui Lodge22-07-2010OserianKiangazi Lodge22-07-2010OserianElsamere Lodge & A ; Centre21-07-2010OserianFisherman ‘s Camp15-07-2010KongoniCrayfish Camp13-07-2010KaragitaL. Naivasha Simba Lodge23-07-2010KaragitaL.
Naivasha Sopa Lodge23-07-2010KongoniFish Eagle Inn15-07-20104.The AberdaresAberdaresAberdares National Park28-07-2010Engineer, Miharati, KipipiriGeta Community Forest Association ( CFA )3rd, 4th, 10th & A ; 11th June ; 27th & A ; 28th JulyMurungaruFriends of Kinangop Plateau06-07-2010TulagaUpper Turasha Conservation Group08-07-2010Questionnaires which were filled in were cross-checked on topographic point so as to guarantee truth and consistence before going from the respondents.
Data Entry Processing and Analysis
The informations gathered from the field surveies was entered into SPSS statistical analysis package version 18.
The consequences of this analysis rooted statistical information which is presented in this thesis ( see Chapter 4 ) every bit good as a study submitted to WWF Naivasha.