Physical Education

During the primitive era, there was no formal physical education.

People went on hunting, fishing and running to search for food. In Greece, two city states rose above all others, Sparta and Athens. The Spartans were conquerors.

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The Spartans aimed at training a powerful body of soldiers. Spartan citizen were prepared to defend themselves and their country at all times. In Athens, education was aimed to develop a full rounded individual of mind and body. Until the age of seven, an Athenian boy lives at home. From 7-16, the boy divided his time between music school and palaestra gymnasium.Discipline was severe and corporal punishment was used extensively.

In China, emphasis was done on the teaching of Confucius. Kung Fu was given emphasis. In India, Yoga was popularized.

Physical education experienced a fall back during the Dark Ages. The Olympics which was first conducted in Athens, Greece was put to a halt by conqueror Theodocius. However, it gained its prominence again after sometime.

One of the greatest contributions of the Americans to the Filipinos is Physical Education instruction. Some of the famous team sports nowadays were invented by the Americans like basketball, volleyball, baseball and tennis.Physical Education today is different from physical education ten or twenty years ago. Today, physical educators emphasize sensitive caring practices carried out in a developmentally appropriate sequence. The field has set national standards and all physical education teachers are expected to strive to help their students meet these standards. But while striving hard to meet the national standards, every teacher works hard to meet the individual’s need. The overall goal is not athletic prowess but rather individual skill development and health-related fitness as well as psychological well being.

In this way, every student will enjoy engaging in physical activities and would want to be physically active for life. It also enhances academic learning. It helps meet the overall mission of the school.

It employs authentic assessment strategies, treats students with respect and dignity and applies instructional and motivational techniques rooted in the latest techniques. II. Goals of Physical Education The goal of Physical Education is to create safe, enjoyable and positive experiences for each child through physical activity. Each child is a unique individual and needs to be recognized for his own strengths.Through Physical Education, the imagination can run wild, the mind can strategize and the body can be put into motion, each at their own pace.

With this in mind, the objectives of Physical Education are to create physically fit individuals with a desire to continue in a lifestyle that reflects physical activity. The main goal of physical education is FITNESS. III. Fitness Fitness is the capacity of each individual to accomplish daily tasks with alertness and vigor. This implies that physical fitness is a personal matter and must be viewed within the context of individual’s daily life activities.

It is the ability of an individual to live a satisfying life. To achieve this, a person must be healthy physically, mentally, emotionally, socially and spiritually. A. Aspects of Physical fitness • improve the total health of the individual in various ways • increase cognitive capacity, enhancing readiness to learn academic performance, enthusiasm for learning and the ability to make knowledgeable choices regarding health and life in general • enhance the self-esteem of the individual as well as positive interpersonal relationship responsible behavior and independence.A person who is physically fit possesses strength, power and endurance. He works efficiently with a minimum waist of energy. He is free from diseases and remediable defects.

Mentally, he is a person who is more alert and has trained his faculties for effective study and work. He learns the mechanical principles underlying body movements. He acquires knowledge and understanding of the fundamental rules and strategies of sport. He develops concepts and learns to generalize.

Emotionally, he learns to control himself and acts wisely with courage when caught in stressful and emotionally intense situations.Finding joy and satisfaction in physical activities, his tensions are removed and this contributes to his ability to relax. Acquiring a certain measure of success in performing a particular skill, he is able to establish a more positive self-concept. Socially, he acquires desirable interpersonal standards and ethical concepts. He is aware of his role as a member of the group and develops the we feeling of group consciousness. He is cooperative and exhibits further self-direction in a manner that will result in success for all members of the group including him. Spiritually, he believes in God and makes peace with him.He practices his faith in high ethical standards for his own upliftment and that of his family and his neighbors.

There are so many benefits to be gained from participation in physical fitness and wellness programs and people of all ages and both genders can derive benefits from such programs so as to help them to maintain higher quality of life. The most important benefits of physical fitness and wellness approach in the development of positive attitude that helps people to see life’s possibilities and to work for their attainment so as to make one’s life personally fulfilling and satisfying.It provides the basis for optimal physiological health and gives us the capacity to enjoy a full life. B. Main Benefits of Physical Fitness 1.

Condition of heart and lungs by increasing the oxygen available to the body therefore enabling the heart to use oxygen more efficiently. 2. Development of physical fitness components such as strength, endurance, agility, flexibility, etc and improvement of muscle tone. 3. Fosters correct posture, figure, body image, and physical appearance. 4.

Quick recovery after injury, illness and decrease the risk of cardio-vascular disease. 5. Reduces and controls body fat.Exercise combined with a proper diet will reduce body fat and also fulfill proper nutritional requirement. 6. Increase energy level of a person and helps to maintain ideal body weight. 7. Through participation in physical fitness program, leisure (free) time is properly utilized.

8. Improve mood and reduce depression and anxiety. 9. Postpones fatigue and reduces recovery time after vigorous activity.

10. Helps people to meet challenges of life, make them self confident and postpones aging process. C. Importance of Being Physically Fit Physical fitness is one of the aspects of total fitness. This term is subdivided into three types: 1.

Medical or Static Fitness – refers to the soundness of health of the internal organs of the body particularly the heart and the lungs. 2. Dynamic or Functional Fitness – refers to the degree which the body parts and organs function efficiently during work. 3. Motor Skill Fitness – refers to the ability of all body parts to work with coordination and strength while performing physical activities. D.

Two Components of Fitness 1. Health-Related Components – physiological state of well being that reduces the risk of hypo kinetic disease • Cardio-respiratory Endurance – the ability to do moderately strenuous activity over a period of time.It reflects how well your heart and lungs work together to supply oxygen to your body during exertion and exercise. It is called aerobic fitness. Long runs and swims are among the methods employed in measuring this component. • Muscular Strength – the ability of the muscles to exert force for a brief period of time. Upper-body strength, for example, can be measured by various weight lifting exercises. • Muscular Endurance – the ability to hold a particular position for a sustained period of time or repeat a movement many times.

Push-ups are often use to test endurance of arm and shoulder muscles.• Flexibility – the ability to move a joint through its full range of motion, the elasticity of the muscles. This show how flexible you are. The sit-and-reach test is a good measure of flexibility of the lower back and backs of the upper legs.

• Body Composition – the proportion of fat in your body compared to your bone and muscles. It refers to the make-up of the body in terms of lean mass and fat mass. An optimal ration of lean mass is an indication of fitness, and the right types of exercises will help you decrease body fat and increase or maintain muscles mass. 2. Skill-Related Components.• Speed – refers to the ability of an individual to perform a particular movement while covering a distance at the shortest possible time. • Agility – refers to the ability of a person to change position or directions easily and quickly while under control. • Coordination – refers to the teaming together of muscles and nerves in order to accomplish an accurate and well-timed body movement • Balance – refers to the ability to maintain body stability while moving or standing.

• Power – refers to the ability to perform strong movements quickly. • Reaction Time – refers to the amount of time it takes to move once a person decides to start moving.IV. Locomotor and Non-Locomotor Movements Locomotor movements are the foundations of human movement. Walking, running, hopping, skipping, jumping, galloping, leaping and sliding are the eight locomotor movements. The 8 Locomotor Movements: 1.

WALK: A form of locomotion in which the body weight is transferred alternately from the ball (toe) of one foot to the heel of the other. At times one foot is on the ground and during a brief phase both feet are on the ground. There is no time when both feet are off the ground. 2. RUN: A form of locomotion much like the walk except that the tempo and body lean may differ.At time one foot is on the ground and during a brief phase both feet are off the ground. There is no time when both feet are on the ground simultaneously.

3. LEAP: An exaggerated running step. There is a transfer of weight from one foot to the other and a phase when neither foot is in contact with the ground. 4. JUMP: A form of locomotion in which the body weight is projected from one or two feet and lands on two feet. Basic forms: for height, from height, distance, continuous, and rebounding. 5.

HOP: A form of locomotion in which the body is projected from one foot to the same foot.6. SKIP: A locomotor skill which combines a hop and a step (walk or run). The rhythm is uneven. 7. GALLOP: A form of locomotion which is a combination of an open step by the leading foot and a closed step by the trailing foot. The same foot leads throughout. The rhythm is uneven.

8. SLIDE: The same thing as the gallop except that the direction of travel is sideways instead offorward. The rhythm is uneven. Non-locomotor movements consist of mainly using the upper body to move. Feet stay firmly on the ground and you are not using any of the foundations of human movement.Swinging, twisting, turning, stretching, swaying and bending are the six non-locomotor movement The 6 Non Locomotor Movements 1.

Twisting – the rotation of a selected body part around its long axis 2. Bending – moving a joint 3. Swaying – fluidly and gradually shifting the center of gravity from one body part to another 4. Stretching – moving body parts away from the center of gravity 5. Turning – rotating the body along the long axis 6. Swinging – rhythmical, smooth motion of a body part resembling a pendulum Other non locomotor movements ¦pivot ¦stretching ¦pulling.

Manipulative Movement – Movement that involves controlled use of the hands and feet is reflected in manipulative movement. Physical abilities such as grasping, opening and closing hands, waving, throwing and catching are examples of manipulative movement. This type of movement helps develop fine-motor skills and hand-eye coordination. V. Principles of Exercise Regular exercise is a critical part of staying healthy. People who are active live longer and feel better. Exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight. It can delay or prevent diabetes, some cancers and heart problems.

Most adults need at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity at least five days per week. Stretching and weight training can also strengthen your body and improve your fitness level. A. The Basic Principles of Exercise That Must Be Followed • Regularity – To achieve a training effect, a person must exercise often. • Progression – The intensity (how hard) and/or duration of exercise must gradually increase to improve the level of fitness. • Balance – To be effective, a program should include activities that address all the fitness components, since overemphasizing any one of them may hurt the others.• Variety – Providing a variety of activities reduces boredom and increases motivational and progress.

A major challenge for all fitness training programs is maintaining enthusiasm and interest. • Specificity – Pick the right kind of activities to affect each component. You can also try for the specific activity that you are interested in. • Recovery – A hard day of training for given component fitness should be allowed by an easier training day or rest day for that component or muscle group to help permit recovery.• Overload – The work load of each exercise session must exceed the normal demands placed on the body in order to bring about a training effect.

B. FITT Physical activity is described as forms of movements including activities that involve the large skeletal muscles. It is defined by its frequency, intensity, time and type. Frequency – the number of physical activity sessions during a specific time period Intensity – the rate of energy expenditure Time – amount of duration spent in participating a physical activity session Type – kinds of physical activity to be done in a session.

C. Phases of Physical Conditioning 1. Preparatory Phase – helps both the cardio respiratory and muscular systems get used to exercise, preparing the body to handle the conditioning phase. The work load in the beginning must be moderate.

Progression from a lower to a higher level of fitness should be achieved by gradual, planned increases in frequency, intensity and time. 2. Conditioning Phase – To reach the desired level of fitness, people must increase the amount of exercise and/or the workout intensity as their strength and/or endurance increases.

3.Maintenance Phase – This sustains the high level of fitness achieved in the conditioning phase. D. Benefits of Regular Exercise • Reduces your risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity.

• Keeps joints, tendons and ligaments flexible, which make it easier to move around. • Reduce some of the effects of aging. • Contributes to your mental well-being and helps treat depression. • Helps relieve stress and anxiety. • Increases your energy and endurance. • Helps you sleep better.

• Helps you maintain a normal weight by increasing your metabolism.VI. Safety Tips Regular physical activity is vital for good health. While there is a risk of injury with any type of physical activity, the benefits of staying active far outweigh the risk. • Wearing the right shoes, gear and equipment. • Drinking lots of water • Warming up and stretching • Get good advice You can obtain information and advice about exercise safety from your doctor, a sports medicine doctor, physiotherapist or an exercise physiologist or see a sporting association about sporting technique and equipment. A.

Before You Start: Safety Precautions.If you are planning to increase your physical activity or start an exercise program, you start with a sedentary activity—answering a few short questions, that is. The PAR-Q (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire) is the gold standard in fitness safety, used by doctors, trainers and health clubs the world over.

Take care and listen to your body injuries are more likely if you ignore your body’s signals of fatigue, discomfort and pain. Suggestions include: 1. See your doctor for a full medical check-up before embarking on any new fitness program. 2.

Cross- train with other sports and exercise to reduce the risk of overtraining. 3. Make sure you have at least one recovery day, and preferably two, every week. 4. Exercise at an appropriate intensity for your fitness level. It takes time to increase your overall level of fitness. Training too hard or too fast is a common cause of injury. 5.

Injuries need rest- trying to work through the pain will cause more damage to soft muscle tissue and delay healing. 6. If you have a pre- existing injury or an area that is prone to injury, consult your doctor or physiotherapist before starting.Rehabilitation exercises may help to strengthen the injured area or you may be advised to strap it prior to exercising to provide support. B. When to Stop: Warning Signs A certain amount of discomfort during exercise is normal and inevitable—after all, you are challenging your body to do more than it is accustomed to. And you can expect to have some sore muscles after a vigorous workout; often the soreness doesn’t show up until a day or two later, especially with strength training.

But pain and other symptoms that occur during exercise can be warning signs that something is wrong.You should stop exercising right away if you: • Feel dizzy or sick • Break out in a cold sweat • Have muscle cramps • Feel sharp pain in your joints, feet, ankles, or bones • Notice that your heart starts racing or beating irregularly • Feel discomfort or pain • Have a chest pain or other pain that could indicate a heart attack, including pain in the neck and jaw. Pain traveling down the arm or pain between the shoulder blades. • Experience extreme breathlessness. If you start to experience these problems during high intensity aerobic exercise, it is best to immediately slow down.

Allow your heart rate to drop gradually before stopping completely, since an abrupt stop can cause problems with blood circulation and fainting. However, in cases of severe and sudden pain, stop immediately, seek help, and follow up with your doctor. C. Know Your Limits & Your Needs A big part of exercise safety is prevention. Just as your car will run better when you service it regularly, your body will protect itself from injury when you give it the food, water, rest, and attention it needs to operate at its best.You’ll find a lot of information about exercise, basic nutrition, and exercise-related concerns such as stretching, warming up and cooling down properly, and dealing with minor aches and pains before they become big problems.

So, do your homework first, then get out there and start sweating! How to warm-up 1. As the name suggest, you warm-up (5-10 minutes) should gradually warm your muscles and body temperature. 2. The type of activity done in the warm-up should include major muscle groups that will be used in your sporting activity. 3.

Your warm-up could begin with a low intensity activity such as brisk walking or jogging. 4. Stretching should be performed once the muscles have been warmed, as the stretching of cold muscles is less effective. It is also important to stretch after activity as well to assist recovery. Why cool down: 1. To reduce muscle soreness and stiffness. 2. In the last 5 minutes, slow down gradually to a light jog or brisk walk.

3. Finish off with 5-10 minutes of stretching ( emphasize the major muscle groups you have used during your activity) D. Safety Tips 1.You can lose around one and a half liters of fluid for every hour of exercise. One of the first symptoms of dehydration is fatigue, which causes a significant drop in sporting performance.

It may also make you susceptible to cramps, heat stroke. Suggestions include: 1. Avoid starting exercise dehydrated. Drink plenty of fluids for several hours prior to exercise. 2. If you are hydrated you should be able to pass a good volume of clear urine in the hour before exercise. 3. Drink at least 500ml (2 cups) an hour before exercise.

4. Drink at least 150ml every 15 minutes during exercise. 5.During exercise take advantage of all breaks in play to drink up. 6. After exercise drink liberally to ensure you are fully re-hydrated. You can figure out whether you have drunk enough water by weighing yourself before and after exercise- a loss of one kilogram is equivalent to about one liter of lost fluid.

Thirst is a clear indication that you need to drink. 2. Wearing the right shoes, gear and equipment Most sports and exercises rely on some type of equipment, such as shoes or equipment; it can significantly reduce the risk of injury by absorbing the impact of falls or collisions.Safety suggestions include: • Wear appropriate shoes for your sport and replace them they wear out. • Injuries can also be caused by improper form or technique.

Consult your gym instructor, teacher, coach, sporting association, exercise physiologist or physiotherapist for instruction on how to improve your technique. Where to get help: • Your Doctor • Sports medicine doctor • Physiotherapist • Sports association • Exercise physiologist VII. AEROBICS A. Definition Aerobic literally means “with oxygen”, and refers to the use of oxygen in muscles’ energy-generating process.Aerobic exercise includes any type of exercise, typically those performed at moderate levels of intensity for extended periods of time that maintains an increased heart rate.

In such exercise, oxygen is used to “burn” fats and glucose in order to produce adenosine triphosphate, the basic energy carrier for all cells. B. History of aerobics Aerobics is a fairly new form of exercise. It was Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper, an exercise physiologist for the San Antonio Air Force Hospital, Texas, who coined the term ‘aerobics’ to describe the system of exercise that he devised to help prevent coronary artery disease.Dr. Cooper originally formulated aerobic exercises specifically for astronauts, but soon realized that the same set of exercises are useful for the general public as well, especially those suffering from obesity, who are more likely to develop various heart diseases.

He put together all of the aspects and methods he founded in his book Aerobics. C. Types of Aerobic Exercises 1. Aerobic Dance Are you fond of dancing? If yes, then why not use your hobby to your benefit. Aerobic dance helps in maintaining the all-round fitness and also turns out to be a delightful experience.

You can also go for hip-hop form of dance, as it offers great cardio benefits and can be lots of fun, too. 2. Cycling If you still think that cycling is a kid’s activity, come over it!! One of the best types of aerobic exercises, cycling provides great cardiovascular benefits, without causing any kind of mechanical stress to the back, hips, knees and ankles in the form of pain.

For those who do not know how to ride a cycle, you can go for stationary ones. 3. Rowing Machine Well, if you want to workout on all the muscle groups in the body, including the legs, buttocks, back, abdominals and arms, rowing can be the best option to explore.Since it involves the entire body, rowing can effectively burn more calories than any other type of aerobic exercises. 4. Fitness Walking Tired of your sedentary lifestyle! Get going with some fitness walking.

A 30-60 minute walk can prove to be very beneficial. Walking is highly recommended for overweight and older people. Even pregnant ladies can opt for walking, as it keeps you and your baby fit. 5. Running All you need is a good pair of running shoes!! One of the simplest aerobic exercises, it is a great way to burn calories.

The best part is you get a chance to enjoy the bliss of nature and get a feel of fresh air.However, if you are a beginner, running can prove to be a little taxing. 6. Treadmill If you do not want to go outside in the open, how about heading straight to the gym and working out on the treadmill? One of the main benefits of exercising on a treadmill is that it offers continuous feedback on the electronic consoles including features such as time, speed, distance and even heart rate.

7. Swimming For those who know swimming, it can prove to be an ideal aerobic exercise. Swimming does not cause much stress or strain to the joints of the body, making it really enjoying and entertaining.Laps prove to be a great way to burn the extra calories. Also, it can be the best way to beat the heat. 1. Dance Aerobic Exercises? Aerobic dance exercise is a fun way to get your heart and muscles moving so you can get or stay fit and toned. Aerobics in general takes on many forms, and it is possible to do dance aerobics in all of them.

There is low-impact and high-impact aerobics. Both have their own benefits, or it might be that you just prefer a certain kind. Levels of Aerobic Activities 1. 1Low-Impact Aerobic Activities • Do not require having both feet off the ground at the same time.

• Music cadence of 118-125 BPM.• Activities include exaggerated arm movements and the use of wrist weights. • Designed to increase the heart rate to the target heart rate without damaging the joints of the lower extremities.

• Excellent for people of all ages. 1. 2High-Impact Aerobic Activities • Refer to movements where both feet leave the floor. • Combines music with kicking, bending, and jumping and provides the same benefits as running or swimming. • Intensity levels during high-impact aerobics usually reach the upper end of the target heart rate zone (80% – 90%) • A lot of bouncing and jumping movements using larger muscle groups.2.

Phases of Aerobic Dance Workout 1. Warm-up – The warm-up activities at the beginning of the class should be low intensity and prepare the person for more vigorous activities during the formal exercise routine. 22. Stretching – This aims to develop flexibility and includes stretches and bounces with music accompaniment to go with the rhythm of the exercise. This phase is usually done 3-4 minutes.

2. 3 Main Workout – The aerobic phase of the workout emphasizing on continuous motion. This routine is composed of a series of dance patterns and steps styled and choreographed to the accompaniment of music.This phase usually last for 30 minutes. During this workout, it is necessary that you take your working heart rate periodically to sure that you stay within your working heart rate. 2.

4Cool Down – This is the last 5 minutes of the entire workout wherein you perform slow and gentle exercise or dance steps. This allows the heart rate to return gradually to an acceptable recovery period. Stretching exercise is part of the cool down. 3. Benefits of Dance Aerobics Dance exercise is an aerobic activity that works your major muscles during sustained activity.Aerobic exercise forces your heart and lungs to work harder, thereby strengthening your cardiovascular system and decreasing your risk for heart disease.

Other benefits include weight loss and management, increased stamina and lower bad cholesterol. Regular participation in dance exercise can help you fulfill the recommendation of 30 minutes daily adult aerobic activity. VIII. History of Step Aerobics In the late 1960s, regarding when most of America was beginning to discover that there were unfortunate consequences to living a harshly sedentary lifestyle, the next part of the history of step aerobics started.

In 1968, Dr. Cooper wrote a book with regards to aerobic exercise. While he did not coin the term step aerobics, plus in most circumstances talked in regards to aerobic exercise like running, Cooper’s book did move us closer to beginning step aerobics as a form of exercise on its own. This idea helped people fathom what sort of exercise was required later on. One day, Gin Miller, who had injured her knee running, was working on obtaining her leg strength back up by stepping up furthermore down the stairs to her porch.

What she discovered was that not only was this small bit of exercise abundant to create her start breathing heavily, but it likewise did not hurt her injured knee additionally was easy to start. Eventually, Miller sold the idea to Reebok, who started to make the Reebok aerobic steppers. At this point, the exercise that we know of presently as step aerobics was born. It was a mixture of dance and conventional exercise steps that were often set to music so that the persons exercising could stay focused on what they were doing.IX. Taebo/Kickboxing Tae Bo is an aerobic exercise routine that became popular in the 1990s.

It was developed by taekwondo practitioner Billy Blanks and was one of the first “cardio-boxing” programs to enjoy commercial success. Such programs use the motions of martial arts at a rapid pace designed to promote fitness. The name Tae Bo is a portmanteau of tae kwon do and boxing.

Blanks developed the routine in 1976 by combining dance with elements from his martial arts and boxing training to form a workout regimen.Tae Bo includes many of the same punches and kicks as karate, but is not intended for fighting—it was not meant for any combat or self-defense applications. There are no throws, grappling moves, or ground fighting techniques in Tae Bo.

Its only intent is to increase fitness through movement. Tae Bo also includes aerobic exercises intended to strengthen all muscles of the body with basic choreography. The high-intensity workout is intended to increase cardiovascular fitness, strength, muscular endurance and flexibility. X. Retro/Funky Aerobics.Virgin Active, a popular Health Club all over the world, opens its awesome campaign for RetroAerobics. And for their massive promotion, the club was able to convince Harry Langdon, a popular photographer, to use Jane Fonda’s Retro pictures. Fonda’s pictures were taken during the 80’s when she was about to release a book about health and fitness.

Because of its creativity, retro aerobics has been one of the most popular exercises in the 80’s. Retro aerobics is not only a popular exercise routine because of its colorful tights, legwarmers, and headbands but also because of its health benefits.This cool retro exercise routine doesn’t stop in helping people to stay fit but offers tons of health benefits as well. Retro aerobics was also found to decrease the risk in developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular ailments and diabetes. Aside from that, it augments the body’s efficiency in taking in oxygen thus makes you breathe faster.

XI. Zumba / Latin Aerobics Zumba is a Latin dance-inspired fitness program created by dancer and choreographer Alberto “Beto” Perez in Colombia during the 1990s. Zumba involves dance and aerobic elements.Zumba’s choreography incorporates hip-hop, soca, samba, salsa, merengue, mambo, martial arts, and some Bollywood and belly dance moves. Squats and lunges are also included. In 1986, Perez forgot his tape of aerobics music for a class he was teaching. He took the tapes he had in his backpack—consisting of traditional Latin salsa and merengue music—and improvised a class using this non-traditional aerobics music.

After finding initial success in Colombia, he moved to the United States in 2001, where he teamed up with cofounder Alberto Perlman and a childhood friend, COO Alberto Aghion.The trio produced a demo reel, and the concept was discovered and licensed by a company called Fitness Quest to create a direct marketing campaign and a line of home videos. XII. Hip-Hop ABS Hip Hop Abs is a breakthrough home fitness program by Shawn T. and Beach body. Each workout is jam-packed with fat-burning dance moves set to the hottest hip hop music.

This workout will have you sweating as you burn off the pounds and dance your way to a thinner, hotter you! Hip Hop Abs’ Tilt, Tuck and Tighten technique will give you the stomach you’ve always wanted! XIII. Basic Yoga Stretch.The history of yoga is believed to be as old as civilization. The prehistoric roots and its gradual evolution and development are testimony to this fact. Ancient yoga derived from Indian asceticism to uniting in the “cosmic one. ” Yoga history could be traced in the Upanishads, Vedas and even in Brahmanas.

Yoga is much more than a simple exercise program, or a series of complex stretches. This system of philosophy, balance, and conditioning is believed to predate recorded history. As yoga, especially hatha yoga has become and more popular in the United States and the United Kingdom many new enthusiasts have never had the opportunity to