Physical fitness

Wonder why health-conscious people pay so much attention to their regular workouts and diets? Well if you have been ignoring the advice of others on the importance of physical fitness and are reluctant to give up your sedentary lifestyle and unhappy eating habits, it’s time to wake up and smell the coffee. In the Philippine setting, the accountancy profession has been one of the top choices of those who want to thrive in the business domain. The profession offers inordinate opportunities and compels superior standards in performing its job to the public that it aids, be it the commerce and market, the government, or the academe.

To prove this, a record from the Commission on Higher Education shows a rapid increase of the number of enrollees in the accountancy degree in different schools nationwide. In a fast paced world that demands for outstanding public accountants, both accounting degree holders and its aspirants share the same difficulty: Accountants are generally assigned and dispersed to multiple activities and schedules, working with different administrators and bosses whose supervision and management styles may vary.

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It is important to note that because of the many different demands and the countless of hours spent studying in school or in the workplace. Accountancy students tend to neglect their lifestyles, choosing work over healthy living. The alarming issue on physical fitness has reached the World Health Organization (WHO).

The National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA) notes that the average college freshman gains about 2. 5 to 3. 5 pounds during his or her first year in campus, while between 25% and 32% of college students battles eating disorders (Schuna, 2014). A study from the Loyola University New Orleans found out that one’s academic performance is significantly related to his or her diet and lifestyle.

If you eat a well-balanced diet and exercise regularly, you tend to perform better in your academics (Coole). In the Philippine setting, it is a common sight to see college students eating in fast food chains, looking at their notebooks with their eyes bloodshot from staying up late or students brisk walking from a convenience store with a bag of chips and a bottle of soft drinks while looking at his or her notes.

This scene happens almost every day without students realizing their unhealthy diet and lack of physical fitness. Most of these students have grown unaware that they perform a series of behavior in consuming food. Busy in their academic performance, they unconsciously develop a healthy lifestyle that they can either improve or retain when they grow older (Soliven, 2011).

It is also interesting to note that it has been observed that there is an abnormal lack of priority for healthy living and physical fitness amongst accountancy students in Holy Cross of Davao College. The proponents of this study are alarmed by the high rate of neglect for physical fitness by accountancy students. Being accountancy students of Holy Cross of Davao College, the proponents of this study believe that physical fitness goes hand-in-hand with healthy mind.

The proponents wish to stress the importance of living healthy and being physically fit among their fellow accountancy students. Hypothesis The hypothesis will be treated at 0. 05 level of significance. Ho. There is no significant difference in the engagement of accountancy students when grouped according to age, gender, year level, type of students. Statement of the Problem This study is intended to explore the physical fitness of accountancy students specifically in their engagement towards wellness. This study will be guided by the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of accountancy students in terms of: 1. 1 Age 1. 2 Gender 1. 3 Year Level 1. 4 Type of Students 2. To what extent do accounting students engage in the following physical fitness activities: 2. 1 Exercise 2. 2 Spots 2. 3 Gym Workout 2. 4 Diet 3.

Is there significant relationship between the interest in physical fitness activities and accountancy students when grouped according to: 3. 1 Age 3. 2 Gender 3. 3 Year Level 3. 4 Type of student Review of Related Literature So what is physical fitness? Well, it is a state or condition in which both your body and your mind are healthy and physically sound (by taking in proper nutrition and maintaining a good workout schedule).

It is not necessary for a person who is physically fit to have a lean body that can be achieved by maximum calories burned. Rather, they should have strong body endurance, along with good muscle strength and cardiovascular fitness. It is also important to remember that a physically fit body is generally accompanied with a happy and satisfied state of mind (The Importance of…,2009). Physical fitness is one of the most important things in life and one of the most valuable assets one can ever have.

Health is one of the pre-requisites for a happy, well-balanced life (Manohar, 2011). Broadly speaking, the less you do, the more likely you are to end up with low mood or depression, and tension and worry. If you keep active, you are less likely to be depressed, anxious or tense, more likely to feel good about yourself, more likely to concentrate and focus better, more likely to sleep better, more likely to cope with cravings and withdrawal symptoms if you try to give up a habit such as smoking or alcohol, more likely to be able to keep mobile and independent as you get older, possibly less likely to have problems with memory and dementia (Taylor, 2012).

The greatest Greek philosophers of all time, Socrates, Aristotle, Plato all recognized physical exercise as a means to preserve mental health. Convincing evidence from long-term human studies has shown that physical fitness apparently protects the memory canters of the brain. And people who exercise are healthier. Regular physical exercise help lower our risk for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and host of other problems.

But physical activity especially enhance our mental state by increasing the blood circulation, bringing oxygen and endorphins – hormones released after exercise that have benefits on mood and memory – to the brain tissues, helping promote growth of brain cells and is clearly associated with better performance on several cognitive measures, long-term brain health and last but not least general mental wellbeing.

This paper introduces the main themes related with stress, mental challenges, fitness, and biochemical interactions of human body. It is now believed that it could be the whole exercise experience that allows individuals to gain psychological benefits from physical activity (Neeser, 2005).

Regular exercise or physical activity helps many of the body’s systems function better, keeps heart disease, diabetes, and a host of other diseases at bay, and is a key ingredient for losing weight (Harvard School of Public Health, 2001). According to the U. S. Dept. of Health and Human Services (2001), being physically active on a regular basis improves your chances of living longer and living healthier;

helps protect you from developing heart disease and stroke or its precursors, high blood pressure and undesirable blood lipid patterns; helps protect you from developing certain cancers, including colon and breast cancer, and possibly lung and endometrial (uterine lining) cancer; helps prevent type 2 diabetes (what was once called adult-onset diabetes) and metabolic syndrome (a constellation of risk factors that increases the chances of developing heart disease and diabetes);

helps prevent the insidious loss of bone known as osteoporosis, reduces the risk of falling and improves cognitive function among older adults; relieves symptoms of depression and anxiety and improves mood; prevents weight gain; promotes weight loss (when combined with a lower-calorie diet), and helps keep weight off after weight loss; improves heart-lung and muscle fitness; and improves sleep (Neeser, 2005). People who get into a routine of regular exercise often say that exercise makes them feel good and helps them manage stress more effectively.

The reason for the feel-good effect of exercise is that physical activity releases endorphins, the brain chemicals which influence mood and act as the body’s natural painkillers. Exercise has also been shown to improve immunity, making you less likely to get sick. When you’re fit, your body clock may wake you at 5 am, urging you to tie on those running shoes and get on the road. It’s your body’s way of demanding its dose of endorphins. Exercise is thought to bring about additional beneficial mind effects. For instance, the body’s increased core temperature during exercise may help to reduce muscle tension and cause positive alterations in levels of neurotransmitters in the brain (Health24, 2010).

As regularly as you can, you should do exercise. There will be days when you just don’t feel like exercise – you may feel tired or be too busy or anxious about something. If you keep to your routine and exercises at times like this, you will almost certainly feel better. If you are tired, exercise tends to give you energy. If you are worried, it can take your mind off your concerns for a while. Even if you can’t ‘exercise’, a 15 minute walk can help you to clear your mind and relax. You may find it helpful to listen to music at the same time. It’s best not to do too much in the evening.

Being active will generally help you to sleep but, if you exercise late in the evening, you may find it difficult to settle (Taylor, 2012). Aerobic activity involves moving the large muscles in your arms, legs, and hips over and over again. During aerobic activity, you breathe faster and more deeply, and your heart beats faster.

If your breathing and heart rate increase to a moderate degree, your activity is considered moderate intensity. An example would be walking on a level surface at a brisk pace (about 3 to 4 miles per hour). If your breathing increases so much that it is difficult to carry on a conversation, your activity is considered vigorous intensity. An example would be jogging. Do at least 10 minutes of aerobic activity at a time. It is best to spread it throughout the week. This physical activity should be in addition to your routine activities of daily living, such as cooking or walking a short distance such as from the parking lot to your office.

If you have not been physically active for a long time, you need to start slowly and then work your way up as you become fit. For example, if you do not feel up to walking for 30 minutes, try walking for 10 minutes. Then increase your walking time by 5 minutes each week until you reach 30 minutes. Health benefits are gained by doing the following each week: •2 hours and 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity;

or •1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity or •A combination of moderate and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity; and •Muscle-strengthening activities on 2 or more days You can gain even more benefits by boosting activity to 5 hours of moderate intensity or 2 hours and 30 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity each week (Office on Women’s Health, 2008).

If you don’t currently exercise and aren’t very active during the day, any increase in exercise or physical activity is good for you. Aerobic physical activity —any activity that causes a noticeable increase in your heart rate—is especially beneficial for disease prevention. Some studies show that walking briskly for even one to two hours a week (15 to 20 minutes a day) starts to decrease the chances of having a heart attack or stroke, developing diabetes, or dying prematurely.

The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends that healthy adults get a minimum of 2-1/2 hours per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, or get a minimum of 1-1/4 hours per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, or a combination of the two. To lower your risk of injury, it’s best to spread out your activity over a few days in of the week. You can combine moderate and vigorous exercise over the course of the week—say, by doing 20 to 25 minutes of more vigorous intensity activity on two days, and then doing 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity on two days. It’s fine to break up your activity into smaller bursts, as long as you sustain the activity for at least 10 minutes.

Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities on at least two days for the week. Children should get at least 1 hour or more a day of physical activity in age-appropriate activities. Healthy older adults should follow the guidelines for adults (Harvard School of Public Health, 2001). Keep in mind that 2 and 1/2 hour of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week is an excellent starting point, not an upper limit. Exercising longer, harder, or both can bring even greater health benefits.

Also bear in mind that your 2-1/2 hours of activity should be in addition to the light activity that is part of everyday living. But moderate and vigorous lifestyle activities—dancing, mowing the lawn with a push mower, chopping wood, and so on—can count toward your weekly total, if they are sustained for at least 10 minutes (Harvard School of Public Health, 2001). Diet is a particular pattern of eating and a balanced diet provides the correct amount of all nutrients without excess or deficiency to maintain health.

There are many reasons why someone is interested in their diet, for example to improve health, lose weight or increase performance. All nutritional plans need to be designed to suit individual goals, differences and requirements and so there is no one diet that will suit everyone. It is important that changes to a diet are long term changes because individuals with the highest weight fluctuations have the greatest health risk independent of obesity.

Every diet should have health in mind because even if you’re thin you can be unhealthy. If you are overweight but physically fit you have a much lower risk of getting cardiovascular disease than if you are lean and unfit (Juice Knowledge Bank, n. d. ).

Women need 1 1/2 to 2 cups of fruit daily and men should consume 2 cups of fruits daily, according to the USDA’s recommendations. Any form of fruit is acceptable, but whole fruit is the best choice because the skin and pulp contain nutrients and fiber. A 1-cup serving of fruit is equivalent to 1 cup of sliced fruit, 1 cup of 100 percent fruit juice or 1/2 cup of dried fruit. Since juice has very little fiber, choose whole fruits more often than juice. Watch for added sugar in fruit juice and canned or frozen fruits. The recommended daily intake for vegetables is 2 to 2-1/2 cups for women and 2 1/2 to 3 cups for men.

The USDA divides vegetables into five subgroups: dark green leafy, red and orange, starchy veggies, beans and “other” vegetables. The “Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010” provides recommendations for how much to eat daily from each group, such as getting 9 percent of your daily intake from dark green leafy vegetables. However, the most important thing to remember is to eat a variety of vegetables each day. Processed grains, such as white rice, lose nutrients and fiber when the bran and germ layers of the grain are removed. These refined grains are usually enriched with vitamins and minerals, but they never regain the fiber.

For this reason, the USDA recommends getting half of your daily grains from whole grains. The recommendation is stated in terms of ounce equivalents to allow for different types of grains. Women need 5- to 6-ounce equivalents of grains daily, while men need 6- to 8-ounce equivalents, depending on age. A 1-ounce equivalent equals one slice of bread, 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal or 1/2 cup of cooked rice, pasta or cereal. Poultry, fish, meat and eggs are obvious members of the protein group. Vegetable sources of protein in this group include soy products, nuts, seeds, beans and peas.

Consuming around 46 grams of protein per day if you’re female and 56 grams per day if you’re male will meet your protein needs, whether you get your protein from meat or from plant sources. A 3-ounce portion of meat contains 21 to 24 grams of protein. The European Food Safety Authority recommends that women should drink about 1. 6 liters of fluid and men should drink about 2. 0 liters of fluid per day. Fizzy drinks, squashes and juice drinks contain lots of sugar and very few nutrients, so keep them to a minimum, their high sugar content means they are high in calories, and foods that are high in calories can contribute towards becoming overweight.

Related Studies Physical fitness is associated with academic performance in young people, according to a new study. As children’s health continues to be a concern — especially when it comes to obesity — some have suggested that children’s physical fitness is associated with their academic performance,” said Lesley A. Cottrell, Ph. D. “The research, however, had not developed enough to define the nature of that relationship. “

To study the association between children’s physical fitness and academic performance, Cottrell and colleagues analyzed the body mass index percentiles, fitness levels and standardized academic test scores of 725 fifth grade students in Wood County, W. Va. The researchers focused more on the children’s fitness level than their weight. They then compared that data to students’ fitness and academic performance two years later, in the seventh grade.

They separated the participants into four groups of students who were: •in high physical fitness levels in fifth grade and remained so in seventh grade; •fit in fifth grade but had lost their fitness by seventh grade; •not fit in fifth grade but were physically fit by seventh grade; •not physically fit at the beginning of the study, in fifth grade, nor at the end of the study, in seventh grade. Children who had the best average scores in standardized tests in reading, math, science and social studies were fit at the start and end of the study, researchers found.

The next best group, academically, in all four subjects, was made up of children who were not fit in fifth grade but had become fit by seventh grade. The children who had lost their fitness levels between fifth and seventh grades were third in academic performance. Children who were not physically fit in either the fifth or seventh grades had the lowest academic performance. “The take-home message from this study is that we want our kids to be fit as long as possible and it will show in their academic performance,” Cottrell said. “But if we can intervene on those children who are not necessarily fit and get them to physically fit levels, we may also see their academic performance increase. “

Youth who are regularly active also have a better chance of a healthy adulthood. The American Heart Association recommends that children and adolescents should do 60 minutes or more of physical activity daily and they participate in physical activities that are appropriate for their age and enjoyable.

Cottrell said, the study suggests that focusing more on physical fitness and physical education in school would result in healthier, happier and smarter children (Wittberg, 2010). Lifelong exercise can lead to improved brain function in later life, a study has shown. People perform better in mental tests at the age of 50 if they have engaged in regular intense activity, such as playing sport, running, swimming or working out in the gym, since childhood. More than 9,000 individuals took part in the research from the age of 11. Interviews were conducted at regular age intervals to monitor levels of exercise.

Participants also undertook tests of memory, attention and learning. Those who had exercised two to three times per month or more from the age of 11 scored higher in the tests than those who had not. Study leader Dr Alex Dregan, from King’s College London, said: “As exercise represents a key component of lifestyle interventions to prevent cognitive decline, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, public health interventions to promote lifelong exercise have the potential to reduce the personal and social burden associated with these conditions in late adult years. ”

The findings are published today in the journal Psychological Medicine. Government guidelines say that adults aged 19 to 64 should exercise for at least 150 minutes per week. “It’s widely acknowledged that a healthy body equals a healthy mind,” said Dr Dregan. “However, not everyone is willing or able to take part in the recommended 150 minutes of physical activity per week. For these people any level of physical activity may benefit their cognitive well-being in the long-term and this is something that needs to be explored further.

“Setting lower exercise targets at the beginning and gradually increasing their frequency and intensity could be a more effective method for improving levels of exercise within the wider population. ” Intense exercise appeared to provide greater benefit for the brain than regular moderate activity, said Dr Dregan.

He added, “Clinical trials are required to further explore the benefits of exercise for cognitive well-being among older adults, whilst examining the effects of exercise with varying levels of frequency and intensity (Radowitz, 2013). Walking is an ideal exercise for many people—it doesn’t require any special equipment, can be done any time, any place, and is generally very safe.

What’s more, studies such as the Nurses’ Health Study; Health Professionals Follow-up Study; Women’s Health Study; Harvard Alumni Health Study; National Health Interview Survey; Women’s Health Initiative; Honolulu Heart Program; Black Women’s Health Study; and others have demonstrated that this simple form of exercise substantially reduces the chances of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes in different populations. Though walking has health benefits at any pace, brisk walking (at least 3 miles per hour) is more beneficial than slow walking for weight control.

And a recent report from the Nurses’ Health Study II suggests that bicycling offers similar benefits to brisk walking. Researchers followed more than 18,000 women for 16 years to study the relationship between changes in physical activity and weight. On average, women gained about 20 pounds over the course of the study. Women who increased their physical activity by 30 minutes per day gained less weight than women whose activity levels stayed steady.

But the type of activity made a difference: Women who added bicycling or brisk walking to their activity regimens were able to curb their weight gain, but women who added slow walking were not. Brisk walking may be challenging for some people, and bicycling (even on an exercise bike) may be a more comfortable option. In the Nurses’ Health Study II, for example, overweight women spent far less time walking briskly than normal weight women, but they spent about the same amount of time cycling.

If you don’t like brisk walking or bicycling, any activity that makes your heart work harder will help you meet the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, as long as you do it long enough and often enough. Walking and biking are also green ways to commute to work— good for the environment, and good for you (Harvard School of Public Health, 2001).

A study of more 7,000 men who graduated from Harvard before 1950 suggests that older people, those who are out of shape, or those with disabilities may get as much benefit from 30 minutes of slower walking or other exercise as younger, more fit people get from the same amount of more-intense activity. (23) In other words, if an exercise or physical activity feels hard, then it is probably doing your heart—and the rest of you—some good, even if it doesn’t fall into the “moderate” category. If you are currently not active at all, it may be daunting to start out with 30 minutes a day of activity, five days a week.

So start with a shorter, less-intense bout of activity, and gradually increase over time until you can reach or exceed this goal. This “start slow, build up over time” advice for physical activity applies to everyone, but it’s especially true for older adults, since starting slowly can help lower the risk of injury—and can make exercise more enjoyable (Harvard School of Public Health, 2001).

Theoretical Framework The study is anchored on the following theories discussed below. These behavioral theories relate the behavior to physical activity. These theories explain how positive and negative experiences in exercising influence your intention to exercise in the future. The stimulus-response theory was developed by B. F. Skinner (1957) after experiments involving how to make a positive behavior more frequent and how to make an unwanted behavior extinct.

By causing an unwanted behavior to become extinct, it means that the behavior is punished until it no longer occurs after a stimulus. In Skinner’s S-R theory, the reinforcement is used to increase the frequency of the behavior. In the S-R theory, the subject is exposed to a stimulus and performs a behavior is response to the stimulus. It suggests that future exercise behavior depends primarily on whether the exerciser has experienced positive or negative outcomes following previous exercise bouts (Theories and models… ,n. d. ).

The Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983) is an integrative, bio-psychosocial model to conceptualize the process of intentional behavioral change. Transtheoretical Model (TTM) focuses on the decision-making of the individual and is a model of intentional change. The TTM operates on the assumption that people do not change behaviors quickly and decisively. Rather, change in behavior, especially habitual behavior, occurs continuously through a cyclical process.

The TTM posits that individuals move through six stages of change: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. Termination was not part of the original model and is less often used in application of stages of change for health-related behaviors. For each stage of change, different intervention strategies are most effective at moving the person to the next stage of change and subsequently through the model to maintenance, the ideal stage of behavior.

In Pre-contemplation stage, individual does not intend to take action in the foreseeable future (i. e. , next 6 mo. ). In contemplation stage, individual is thinking about changing behavior within the next 6 mo and open to new information. Then preparation stage, individual intends to take action in the immediate future, normally associated with a plan of action. The next stage is the action stage, individual has made specific overt change in life style within the past six mo. requires the greatest commitment of time & energy.

In the maintenance stage, individual has maintained healthy life style change for over 6 mo. and is trying to prevent relapse. In the termination stage, individual has zero temptation to return to unhealthy behavior & 100% self-efficacy for maintaining healthy lifestyle (Boston University School of Public Health, 2013). Conceptual Framework Figure 1 illustrates the process used by the researchers in conducting the study. The upper box represents the theories/model where the study is anchored.

The first box represents the demographic profile of the Accounting students which is the independent variable of the study. Independent variables are: (1) age; (2) Gender; (3) year level; and (4) types of student. The next box represents the dependent variable which is the activities pursued by the accountancy students such as exercise, sports, gym workout, and diet. After the information have been analyzed, appropriate institutional program is expected to be formulated to enhance the physical fitness of the students.

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study Theories •Stimulus-Response Theory (1957) •Transtheoretical Model (1983) Demographic Profile a) Age b) Gender c) Year level d) Types of students Physical Fitness pursued by accountancy students in terms of: •Exercise •Sports •Gym work out •Diet Proposed Institutional Programs to Enhance the Physical Fitness Activities of Accountancy Students CHAPTER 2 Method This chapter presents the methods used by the researchers in data gathering and in analysis.

It also includes a presentation on the research design, the respondents, instruments used, data gathering procedures and statistical tool used in data analysis. Research Design This study employed descriptive method in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting the information concerning the engagement of accounting students regarding Physical Fitness activities. The researchers intend to use this design to obtain first-hand information from the source so as to formulate conclusions and recommendations for the research study. According to Trochim (2006), descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study.

They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis, they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. Descriptive Statistics are used to present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form. In a research study we may have lots of measures. Or we may measure a large number of people on any measure. Descriptive statistics help us to simply large amounts of data in a sensible way. Each descriptive statistic reduces lots of data into a simpler summary. The research flow of the study is presented below.

Research Environment/Locale The study was conducted in Holy Cross of Davao College, Incorporated, a SEC Registered, Filipino, Catholic, Archdiocesan and Educational Non-Profit, Non-stock Educational Corporation. It is located on Sta. Ana Avenue, Davao City. It is presently supervised by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Davao. One of the courses that Holy Cross of Davao College offered is the Bachelor of Science in Accountancy. Data to be gathered •Interest and conscious ness of accounting students in exercise, sports, gym work-outs and diet. Respondents •Accounting students from 1st year to 4th year in Holy Cross of Davao College Tools to gather data •Survey.

Questio nnaire Techniqu es to Analyze •Weight ed mean •T-test •Annova Output of the study •Proposed institutiona l progress to enhance the wellness of accountan cy students Respondents The respondents of the study are students of Holy Cross of Davao College enrolled in the Bachelor of Science in Accountancy. The researchers used disproportionate stratified random sampling in selecting the number of sample. According to Garson (2012), it is a sampling method wherein the population is first divided into homogeneous groups, also called strata. Then, elements from each stratum are selected at random according to the number of sample.

Elements are selected equally and the results are weighted according to the stratum? s size in relation to the entire population. Table 1 Distribution of respondents Year level Population Number of respondents (sample size) 1 368 50 2 238 50 3 195 50 4 150 50 Total 951 200 Research Environment After a series of brainstorming and reading related materials, the researchers come up with the questionnaire which was approved by the adviser and the validators. According to the Business dictionary (n. d. ) it is a list of a research or survey questions asked to respondents, and designed to extract specific information.

It serves four basic purposes: to (1) collect the appropriate data, (2) make data comparable and amenable to analysis, (3) minimize bias in formulating and asking question, and (4) to make questions engaging and varied. The researchers used the instrument to obtain information needed in this study. The questionnaire was divided into two (2) parts. The first part is about the demographic profile of the respondents. The second part is about the engagement of the respondents in physical fitness activities which were divided in to four sections: a) Exercise; b) Sports; c) Gym Work out; and d).