Plagiarism refers to use of someoneelse’s study or ideas and topretend that it is your own.The problem of plagiarism in scientific work is a serious and common issuesince many researches are not really aware of it. Plagiarism is a wide subject from simple dishonesty such asminor copying to a more critical problem like the duplication of original work whenthe researcher do copy-paste from actual source without giving appropriatecredit to the original source 1.Therefore,it must be every researcher or writer’s one of the prior obligations that theyshould know how to prevent any type of plagiarism in their work and make otherresearchers be aware of the seriousness of the plagiarism.Thereare certain methods and processes in scientific research that can be stated asfollows: Specifying the research topics, the selection of scientific methods ofstudy, research design and data gathering, data processing and analysis, authoringand publishing a scientific paper 2.While following previous steps, researcher should also satisfy the ethical, moraland legal criteria specified by the related scientific communities.
Appropriatecitation of the other researchers’ work, whenever used by the author, must beessential. The readers of the article must be guided such that all theinformation and facts from other sources are frankly illustrated. It issignificant for a researcher to publish scientific work to advance in academicfield. While he/she publishes the study they also take the full responsibilityof it, more importantly, the published work becomes available as a furtherreference source for other future studies. Furthermore, this work will beconsidered as a contribution to whole development of science in general, so itmust be honest, trustworthy. There is a competition going on among the academiathat every researcher wants to have their paper to be published in crediblejournals. This source of stress is further combined with deadlines resulting inrise of the plagiarism rate 3.Writinga scientific paper requires acquiring literature in order to reinforce thecurrent study.
It is almost inevitable to gather information from previouspublished sources and it must be done according to rules without gettingtrapped of copying them. Even though internet makes our lives easier, it iseven more likely to reach information online and copy-paste it. Furthermore, academicpeople, Ms. or PhD.
students, even professors are penalized due to plagiarism bysanctions starting from banishment from academic life to losing the allcredibility that they have 4.Based on the purpose, plagiarism could occur as unintentionally ordeliberately. Accidental plagiarism could happen to anyone who isinexperienced. It is mainly caused not knowing the extent of how much data canbe taken from other studies appropriately. On the other hand, using the large partsof other research and intentionally showing as if it is their own is consideredas deliberate plagiarism.
It must be here noted that there is no legaldifference between the accidental and deliberate plagiarism 3. Therefore, researcher should takethe all responsibility and check the suitability of his/her work and citations beforepublishing anywhere.Thereare many forms of plagiarism according to Mohammed Rabab ‘s paper 3. These are plagiarism of ideas,plagiarism of text, self-plagiarism, collusion and patchwriting. Plagiarism ofideas when writer tries to conduct a research on a topic that could possiblylearnt from other researcher’s work, for instance, a presentation or a proposal.
Besides it is hard to prove this type of plagiarism since there is no solid outputstolen. Self-plagiarism is one of theforms where author uses the same information in two different publicationswithout mentioning these publications together. Text plagiarism is the mostencountered form of plagiarism. The reason of it is that research copies thestudy from another source without appropriately using citation as explainedpreviously. Collusion is about using somebody else’s (experts or companies) workwith permission as if it’s their own work in exchange of money or interest. Finally,patchwriting is a form where researcher changes couple of parts from anotherwork so it would look like as if it is original one. The significant point hereis that paraphrasing with suitable citation (as done in this paragraph fromRabab’s paper) is allowed while patchwriting is never allowed. It does not matter which type of plagiarismthe researcher attempts, it will be punished according to the degree of plagiarism.
All researchersneed to check their studies before publication in order to prevent accidentalplagiarism explained above. There are many plagiarism detection tool online canbe used even without a fee. Some of the plagiarism detection tools are CrossCheckTM, eTBLAST, Turnitin and SafeAssign 1.Severalprecautions can be taken to reach plagiarism-free content. It is not onlybecause it violates ethical and legal principles, it is also prevents newscientific discoveries and creativity. Thus, there are several things to do inorder to prevent plagiarism in scientific content.
Firstly, it is theresponsibility of everybody in the scientific community to use citationwhenever a piece of information is used from another source. The differencebetween paraphrasing and quoting should be clearly pointed out. Even if theauthor is using an information from his/her previous works, it is still shouldbe cited clearly. Researcher should allocate his or her time adequately so thathe/she will have complete comprehension of the topic since time pressure is a drivingfactor for a researcher. Authors have tendency towards plagiarism and mayignore minor plagiarisms due to time restrictions. There are also obligationsfor the academic or private institutions that their researchers are wellinformed about the seriousness of plagiarism by organizing sessions orpresentations for the sake of researchers.
After all, final task is to checkthe publication using plagiarism software to assess the uniqueness of the work.All inall, the key to publish a qualified scientific work, author needs to be honestand take the responsibility of the work, while putting effort to using his/herwords throughout the paper and making citations, paraphrasing appropriately. Credibilityand honesty are the two principles that should be followed in any scientificwork, while violation of them creates an insecure environment, so lack of confidencepreventing scientific advancements. The rise in the rate of plagiarism could beavoided before it constitutes more serious matter in academia. Precautions mustbe taken by both individuals and institutions by organizing informationsessions to raise awareness about consequences of plagiarism and encourageresearchers to use plagiarism detection software. Plagiarism at the end could resultin loss of academic degree and credibility if it is not handled carefully.