Rapid deplete the soil quality (Edmore Kori and

Rapid industrialization in
developing the construction sector will encourage the growth in urbanized areas
for countries. For current scenario, there is fast manner growing of
construction industry. This is because construction industry will definitely
support the urbanization since all over anywhere require construction
activities.

Almost all commercial
activities are undertaken in buildings and on highways and rail systems that
require concrete and asphalt-bound structures which is comprised of almost
totally aggregate. Aggregate comprises about 65-85% of volume from total structures,
the binder (Portland cement in concrete and bitumen in asphalt pavement or tar)
and the reinforcing skeletons made of structural steel comprise the remaining
percentage.

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But for the different view,
there are a lot of problems come out on the raw material’s availability.
Continuously explore the natural resources for
concrete production will threaten the condition of the environment
on earth (Logeswaran, 2015). The
extraction of gravel from rivers will bring impact for the ecosystem and
deplete the soil quality (Edmore Kori and Humphrey Mathada, 2012).
It is clearly shows that the
construction industry is one of the major industries contributing to these
environmental threats. The amount of the aggregate used as construction materials
for each year is very surprising. This values more than $70 billion which in
turn makes aggregate production one of the most important mining industries in
the world (Yasmin Yusuf, 2014). As the result, the concrete industry faces a serious decline of natural aggregates.
It is not uncommon to see so many natural resources
being depleted due to extensive use of the natural resources used in the
construction industry.

Malaysia is being the
largest producer and exporter of palm oil, which accounting for about 52% of the total world oils
and fats export in the year 2006 (Surnathi
et al., 2008).
Thus, it is expected that millions tomes of palm oil
waste will be produced annually due to its huge productivity. According to Yap et al. (2013), there is 0.06 million
tonnes of POFA is produced every year in Malaysia
which generates the increasing trend for the wastage problem. This made Malaysia has been facing problem in
disposing palm oil fuel ash, a by-product of palm oil
mill since many years ago. The discharge of this high organic waste will cause negative impact to
the environment.

The rapid growth of population has
increased the demand on the water supply. Typically, water treatment plant will
produce almost hundred thousand tonnes of sludge per year (Bourgeois et al.,
2014). The generated sludge will directly drain into water body or dump for
landfill after dewatering process. Although this is inexpensive to dispose the
sludge, but it is not an ideal solution where the sludge may contain possibility
of contaminants from chemical substances during treatment process. This is one
of the challenges to outline the sustainable sludge management strategy with
minimal effect on the environment.

Due to the huge amounts of construction
and solid waste, government needs to
allocate more hectares of landfill for disposal and spends a lot of money for
transporting the waste includes the maintenance purposes.
In addition, government also faced
problems when forced to allocate more landfill and
also sustainable management for the
disposal of concrete, one of the construction waste
from demolition or renovation. Besides
these, there are limitations that restrain the construction aggregate market which include high rise
in energy cost, transportation cost, seasonal factor and stringent zoning (Persistence
Market Research, 2016). Human activities without compromise the
sustainable planning and disposal strategies also result in severe damages to the environment especially the
climate change throughout
the world. For instance, there are a few of
wildfire incudes flooding,
tsunami and drought due to global warming, rising of sea level, depletion of
the ozone layer  which will cause increasing threats of cancer and land loss due to contamination of soil.

Therefore, the shortage of
conventional building materials for the construction development should be
taken consideration whereas the abundantly available industrial waste products
should be promoted as the alternative new building materials (Kumar 2002).

In order to deal with the
declination of natural resources and waste disposal problem, the construction industries find ways of substituting
recycled concrete aggregates for natural aggregate. There are many studies
about the use of recycled waste in general and more attention has been given to the recycling of
various waste streams to produce artificial lightweight aggregates (LWA) and
lightweight cellular geopolymer. Since the wastage fiom palm oil and
water treatment plant are not reused
and recycle in any works, so the wastage can be used of artificial aggregate containing POFA as additional binder material to cement. But yet, there are limit
available information on the utilization of silt and POFA combination as the
aggregates replacement in concrete.