RESEARCHPAPER TOPIC:ROLE OF ASEAN IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION: CASE STUDY OF MYANMAR TABLE OF CONTENTABSTRACTINTRODUCTIONTO THE TOPICBACKGROUNDCURRENTSITUATION IN MYANMARSOCIALASPECT POLITICALASPECT ECNOMICALASPECT RESEARCHQUESTIONHYPOTHESISASEANAND MYANMARASEANAND RECENT ROHINGYA CRISESCONCLUSIONREFRENCES ABSTRACTTheResearch was conducted on ASEAN and it role in Conflict Resolution and my mainfocus will be on Myanmar. Myanmar is the south East Asian nation of more than100 ethic group. It borders with India, Bangladesh, China and Thailand. Thelargest city of Myanmar is Yangon and the population of Myanmar is 52.89 million (2016).ASEAN was formed in 1967 and Myanmar has joint ASEAN as a member state in 1997after 10 years of its formation.
Currently 10 states are associated with ASEAN.Myanmar has a record of world longest ongoingconflict. Due to recent reforms of democratization Myanmar came under the lightof media and the recent ethnic conflict catch the attraction of internationalcommunity. Through my finding I have highlighted the roleof ASEAN in Myanmar and I will sort out how far ASEAN is successful in Conflict resolution in Myanmar and if itis not successful then I will find out the reasons why ASEAN is ineffective in conflictresolution in Myanmar.Thefinding of the research is based on close and careful study of different books,article and research papers. I had watched different documentaries related tocurrent situation in Myanmar for this purpose. INTRODUCTIONASEANis the Association of South East Nations is a regional organization aims topromotes economic, political and security cooperation among its members states.It is formed in 2 august 1967.
Since its formation Indonesia, Malaysia,Singapore, Philippine and Thailand are it member. Later its membership isexpanded to include Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam. Currentlythere are 10 members’ states.
The ASEAN was founded during cold war aims topromote stability in the region. This association was further expanded tocreate ASEAN PLUS THREE forum in 1977 which include Japan, South Korea andChina.Theorganization strive toward peace and stability in the nation, the membersstates have develop a treaty not to develop nuclear weapon and most have agreedon counter terrorism pact which include sharing intelligence and easing theextradition process of terror suspect.
ASEANSclaims to opening up of Myanmar is most significant recent achievements, havingmonitored a policy of positive engagement and non- confrontation. Myanmarjoined ASEAN as a member on 23 July 1997. ASEAN approved Myanmar as a memberdespite objection from international community, which consider Myanmar as acrook country because a country is governed by military rule defendant of humanrights violation. In 2014 Myanmar hosted successfully ASEAN annual summit inits new political capital Naw Pyi Taw and started its new chapter of engagementwith regional group.
Despite lack of diplomatic experience the country thecountry has successfully organize more than 1000 meetings that the organizationholds each year.Afteryears of dictatorship Myanmar in 2015 military rule was peacefully resignedleadership to National League for Democracy (NLD) led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi who won majority innational and regional level through election. It was the best event in forASEAN and ASEAN consider Myanmar as a success story.Beside this success story Myanmar is not thatmuch successful in regional initiative such as upholding in human rights etc.focusing on democracy and human rights issue the role of ASEAN in Myanmar isstill limited. BACKGROUDBurmahas the greatest number of outfitted ethnic uprisings of all the part states inthe Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and a settled regularlimitation to the choice military organization. The ethnic uprisings began in1948 while regular confinement has grown more open in the midst of the latestdecade.
There are seven formally renowned ethnic social occasions in Burmaisolated from the Burman overwhelming part: the Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni(Kayah), Mon, Rakhine (Arakanese) and Shan. This, in any case, fails toconsider incalculable talking more than 100 lingos. This ethnic not too badassortment and these ethno-loyalist objectives, joined with the communistadvancement, shaped irritating issues. Myanmar got independence on 4January 1948, named the Union of Burma with Sao Shwe Thaik as its firstPresident and U Nu as its first Prime Minister. Majority rules system completedin 1962 when General Ne Win drove a military overthrow. He oversaw for around26 years and looked for after plans under the rubric of the Burmese Way toSocialism. In the vicinity of 1962 and 1974, Burma was directed by a dynamicboard headed by the general, and about all parts of society (business, media,creation) were nationalized or brought under government control (counting theBoy Scouts).
With a ultimate objective to consolidate control, General Ne Winand many best officers surrendered from the military and took non militarystaff posts and, from 1974, set up races in a one get-together system. In theregion of 1974 and 1988, Burma was satisfactorily overseen by General Ne Winthrough the Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP). In 1988, trouble over money related screw upand political mishandle by the organization incited in all cases virtuoso votebased framework shows all through the country known as the 8888 Uprising.Security powers butchered a large number of demonstrators, and General SawMaung sorted out defiance and confined the State Law and Order RestorationCouncil (SLORC). In 1989, SLORC articulated military law after no matter howyou look at it questions. The military government closed plans for People’sAssembly races on 31 May 1989.
SLORC changed the country’s real English namefrom the “Union of Burma” to the “Union of Myanmar” in1989.In May 1990, the governing body held free races unprecedented forpractically 30 years. The National League for Democracy (NLD), the get-togetherof Aung San Suu Kyi, won 392 out of a total 489 seats, however the choice comesto fruition were repudiated by SLORC, which declined to wander down. Driven byThan Shwe since 1992, the military organization has impacted stop to fireconcurrences with most ethnic guerilla social occasions. In 1992, SLORCrevealed plans to make another constitution through the National Convention,which began 9 January 1993. In 1997, the State Law and Order RestorationCouncil was renamed the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC).
On 23 June1997, Myanmar was surrendered into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN). Current situation in MyanmarTo describe the current situation we will look at the political,legal, economic, social and aspect of the country. POLITCAL AND LEGAL ASPECT· Administered by military junta(1962-now), with loaded with intimidation and no popular government · Numerous prodemocracy activists, commonsocial orders, and restriction components have been stifled, confined, andimprisoned without reasonable legal process (counting priests), and some ofthem were executed · Condemned and squeezed by Westernnations, and additionally UN (and ASEAN for some expands), yet moderately closewith India, China, and Russia (in 2007, the SC draft determination about humanrights infringement was vetoed by Russia and China) · To a great degree degenerate state (rank178 of 180 nations in 2008 Transparency Internationals CPI).· Junta utilizing hostile to subversiveand inner security constitution to destruct the democratization procedure.· 2008 constitution submission guaranteedto held Election in 2010 and perform “vote based system” later on. ECOMICAL ASPECT· Until 1960’s, Myanmar was the wealthiestnation in Southeast Asia and the world’s biggest exporter of rice. · Since administered by juntaadministration, normal rate of yearly GDP development just 2,9%, GDP per capitaUSD233 and expansion rate achieve 30-60% · Restricted venture and exchanging fromUS and other Western nations · Remote venture comes basically fromChina, Singapore, South Korea, India, and Thailand (India is the greatestfinancial specialist in regular assets and industry).
· Absence of frameworks, with theexception of in Thai outskirt, through which the fundamental unlawfulmedications are trade.· World’s second biggest maker of opium,and increasing national salary through illicit medications (some banks got 40%commission from cash clothing)— some of them worked together with MOGE(national oil organization). SOCIAL ASPECT· 55 million populaces, with morethan 295,800 outcasts exist along Indian, Bangladeshi and Thai borders while afew thousand are in Malaysia. · 135 unmistakable ethnicgatherings, with 108 dialects. Bamar is the greatest ethnic, with 68% ofpopulace and Buddhist is the greatest religion. · Human Development Index 0,583(rank 132). · Minority ethnic and religiousmistreatment to join the armed force or land government positions, theprinciple course to achievement in the nation.
· UN distinguished substantialhuman rights infringement, including enormous assault and executing of Karenminority ethnic by military. · Military junta confines theuniversal helpful aids to keep the general population’s reliance fromgovernment. · There are 101 colleges, 12foundations, 9 degree schools and 24 universities in Burma. RESEARCH QUESTION Why the role of ASEANS is noteffective in conflict resolution in conflict resolution in MYANMAR? HYPOTHESIS I think the best hypothesis tomy research question is that non –interference policy is retarding ASEAN fromtaking meaningful action for conflict resolution.
ASEANAND MYANMARAs we know from theearliest that Myanmar joining of ASEAN is not that easy process. There weremany opposition of Myanmar admission into ASEAN not only from external butInternal from ASEAN itself due to undemocratic system and Military rule inASEAN. In the face of all these difficult situations Myanmar realizes that inthe age of Globalization and regionalism living in Isolation is not onlydifficult but it could May also be thread to the survival of the county.
Sojoining of any regional organization became priority of the Myanmar at thattime. But being the member of ASEAN still not be able deal with politicalchange and democratic transition in Myanmar. There was not such work has beendone by ASEAN to resolve the problem related to the military rule in Myanmartill 2015.
If we look at the history the conflict inMyanmar is most intractable conflict in the whole world. Myanmar holds a recordof 60 years ongoing civil war. More than 100 ethnic groups are fighting witheach other to preserve their identity in front of majority barman. The civilwar started in 1948 with independence from British colonial rule.
Many ethnicrebellion and communist insurgency became a reason behind the failure ofparliamentary system formed after getting independence. To restore the countrysituation military took over the government and then the military rulecontinued for five decades. In 2004 military first step toward slow transitionto democratic rule.
New constitution was made in 2004 and in 2010 election washeld. Democratic government emerges in 2011. Next elections were held in 2015and Daw Su Kyi party came into power by winning 80% seats through fairelections.In the Southeast Asianpolitics the policy of non-interference in the affairs of states is veryimportant and this noninterference principle limits the role of ASEAN inMyanmar. In resolve conflict ASEAN prefer the informal approach focusing onrelationships rather than formal structure.
These are called soft approach. InMyanmar issues ASEAN is using soft approaches. In 42 ASEAN Ministerial meetingin Thailand the Prime minister of Thailand said “the soft way (ASEAN Way)approaches are is more productive rather than sanction mechanism that will makeMyanmar more isolated.”Non- interference policy limit the role of ASEAN andMyanmar itself realize that summit diplomacy and consensus building is notenough for solving its issues therefore Myanmar refuse to debate it problemswith ASEAN. ASEAN role is limited inMyanmar not only because of non – interference policy but also due lack ofcommitment from member states regarding human rights and conflict management.Non – interferencepolicy is considered the central pillar of Southeast Asian regionalism but onthe other hand this policy is also underpinning ASEAN from taking meaningfulaction like tackling with economic crises and security issues.The role played byASEAN in Myanmar is not proved by any resolution.
ASEAN is playing the role offorum. There are different meetings in the forum to discuss any problem. ASEANis providing forum for a countries to discuss their issues related to conflictresolution. Many meeting took place I this forum for conflict resolution forexample in 2000 ASEAN established ASEAN troika to enhance interaction andaddress the issue like regional peace and harmony. In 2003 ASEAN planned ASEANsecurity community which declared that member states should promote politicaldevelopment to achieve peace, stability and security in the region.Myanmar is not onlyusing ASEAN as a forum but also as an instrument.
Myanmar is using ASEAN basicprinciple Non- interference to avoid participation of ASEAN in its internalaffairs. It’s clearly showed that ASEAN don’t like those other partiesinterfere in its internal affairs especially ASEAN. Myanmar is failed toresponse ASEAN rather it is intrumentaliziing the organization for its ownpurpose. ASEANand Rohingya CrisesThe Rohingya crisesstarted in June 2012. At first there was communal riot between Rohingya Muslimand Rakhine Buddhist and later it turned into persecution and forcesdisplacement of Muslim minority. Now five years later this issue is turned intohumanitarian cries and it’s a time for ASEAN to take important steps to resolvethe issue and to present a regional response.
The ASEAN regions to whichthe Myanmar is also a member is regionally, politically and economicallyinterconnected. It means the humanitarian crises and the conflict growing inone country can cause regional security thread. For solution of such kind ofthread Myanmar has to change its attitude toward ASEAN and has to engage itselfwith others partners of ASEAN. Although ASEAN respect the sovereignty and Non –interference policy of other states, the regional grouping has now started workon conflict resolution, humanitarian issue and security promotion. An ASEANnation has to promote preventive diplomacy, prevent conflicts and problem andaddress issues at both local and regional level. They ASEAN expressed its fullsupport for Myanmar in order to bring peace, stability, rule of law and topromote reconciliation between various committees.ASEAN will lose itcredibility and confidence of international committee if it continues to ignorethe plight of Rohingya.
It has to act earlier to prevent Rohingya crises tobecome regional issue. If ASEAN will unable to contain these crises it willopen up the concept of deeping cultural and religious division and potentialdanger of identity politics will be increased.Conclusion ASEAN’s guideline ofnon-interference has permitted the part states to focus on country building andadministration strength while keeping up agreeable ties with different states.
While ASEAN’s standard has never been outright, and has frequently beenutilized as a device for legitimizing state-conduct in light of a legitimateconcern for the overwhelming political and monetary first class, lately regularinterests have come to assume a more vital part in the affiliation’s lead ofprovincial issues. This is occurring in light of expanding reliance among thepart states and the developing acknowledgment that standards of goodadministration ought to be considered all together for the relationship torecapture importance and believability among the area’s own nationals and alsoon the more extensive worldwide scene. In this regard, the rule’s capacity as amanaging light for the affiliation’s conduct in territorial issues has turnedout to be progressively delicate as of late. With its new arrangement of takinginto account open feedback of other states’ issues where local security is inquestion, together with a more emphatic position on human rights, ASEAN hasmoved past its conventional non-obstruction approach.
However, thenon-obstruction guideline, as it is deciphered today, still goes about as arelatively solid restriction on ASEAN’s conduct in territorial issues. Therule’s directing capacity is truly undermined, yet to date another set ofprinciples as a suitable substitution for the non-obstruction strategydemonstrates hard to create in light of the proceeding with localprecariousness in a considerable lot of the part states.