REVIEW both academic and popular discourse, social media

REVIEW
OF RELATED LITERATURE

The following readings
are taken from different literatures which are related to the study in terms of
Social Media Engagement and Students Perception towards Cyber bullying.
Literatures chosen are based in their relevance to the study. Moreover,
readings taken are for the multiplication of knowledge regarding the variables
used in this study.

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Social Media Engagement

   In
the past decades, the equilibration point of the web had shifted from top-down
platforms that replicated mass media towards user-driven online platforms.
Today, social media is known as a popular mainstream online platform, from
social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter and Google Plus to Wikipedia and
YouTube.  It is often considered as an
essential element of Web 2.0 (Kaplan and Haelein, 2010), a term coined by
O’Reilly (2007) to describe the development of new platforms, features,  and uses that build on user’s participation
in the form of user-generated content, decentralization, and rich user
experience.

In both academic
and popular discourse, social media has become widespread however, the notion
has been used to described various and somewhat different ideas.  Frequently, social media is considered a
platform that facilitates information sharing and participation (Steenkamp and
Hyde- Clarke, 2014). DeNardis (2014) suggested that social media characterized
by the conformances of user-generated generated content and the user’s ability
to select and articulate network connections with other users. Kietzman, et. al.,
(2011) defined social media as employing mobile and web-based technologies to
generate highly interactive outlet via which individuals and communities share,
co-create, discuss and modify user-generated content. LaRose, et. al., (2014)
also tied social media with information exchanges and predetermined social
media as communication channels that are used to form or maintain social
relationships through the creation and exchange of electronic interpersonal
communication.

From the early
days of the internet, whether it was the first email at User Bulletin Boards,
the internet has authorized people to communicate, connect, and collaborate in
new ways. Among the most popular users of the internet is socializing with
others (Pew Project on the Internet and American Life, 2008; UCLA Center for
Communication Policy, 2000). This has prompted considerable speculation and
disagreement on online social contacts’ nature and consequences.

In imposing the
social and personal well-being consequences the internet is to compare the
amount of internet use of people. Though rarely articulated, this positions the
internet as a technologically- deterministic force. Through sudden pressures,
internet users have been influenced by the internet. As Jung, et, al., (2001)
note, using internet exposure as an independent variable presumes the direct
effects model cast out of media studies decades ago. Instead, the internet
should be reckoned as a cultural devise used to achieve social and cultural
goals (Mates and Ball-Rokeach, 2002).

Conceptualizing
the internet as a casual column makes it easy to envision that there is a
“cyberspace” that exists apart from everyday life rather than
integrated into it  (Haythornthwaite and Wellman, 2002; Miller and
Slater, 2000).

          Application
or mode of communication is enabled by the prevalence of Web 2.0 technology at
the end of year 2004. The previous web 1.0 consists of static pages and offer
little interactivity, inclusiveness, collaborative, authentic materials, and
digital literacy skills which are higher. With technological advent from Web 1.0
to Web 2.0, new media is changing and growing. To meet the technical requirements
for creating an effective online social networking, new media technology
evolved. This social media where individuals can meet and chat with others who
share their same interests have spread rapidly and have become a very popular
application of the internet (Igbaria, et, al., 2001).

Social media is
changing all the time; therefore, it appears in various forms or applications
such as Social Networking, i.e, Facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn, which
is the use of dedicated websites and
applications to interact with other users, or to find people with similar
interests to one self; Blogging, i.e, Word press and Blogger, a website
containing a writer’s or group of writers’ own experiences, observations,
opinions and often having images and links to other websites; Micro blogging,
i.e, twitter and tumbler, is a web service that allows the
subscriber to broadcast short messages to other subscribers of the service. Photo sharing, i.e, Instagram, Flicker,
Snapchat, Pinterest, is a process of publishing of digital photographs on the
internet; and Video Sharing, i.e, YouTube, Vimeo, and Periscope. A website
that lets people upload and share their video clips with the public at large or
to invited guests. Usage
of these social media platforms creates excitement to the user and they are
used often than other media. This is consistent with McQualis (1994) opinion
that one of the characteristics of new media is related to the degree of
“playfulness,” the degree to which a current or potential user believes that
the social networking sites will bring a sense of enjoyment and pleasure.

Cyberspace became
a new playground and online interaction where people get together and form
groups based on internet with the use of social networking and virtual websites.
Millions are logging in, and engaging. It has become more fun, interactive, and
with the elements of videos, audios, and digital animations offered by this new
media. This use of new media is no longer confined to the home or at work, but
can be used anywhere with a wireless technology that can also be used on mobile
phones.

Cyber bullying

 

Cyber bullying involves
the use of information and communication technologies, such as e-mail, cellular
phones, instant messaging, and defamatory personal Web sites, to support
deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group that is
intended to harm others (Belsey, 2004). According to Willard (2004), cyber bullying
can take different forms, with the main forms ranging from flaming, to
harassment, to cyber stalking. The following list gives a formal definition for
each form:

Harassment is a process
of repeatedly sending a person offensive messages. This is the use
of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to harass, control,
manipulate or habitually mock a child, adult, business or group without a
direct or implied threat of physical harm. Denigration is
a process of sending or posting harmful, untrue, or cruel statements about a
person to other people to intentionally damage their reputation or
friendships. This cyber bullying method is also known as
dissing where in a common element and layer is involved in most of the cyber
bullying tactics listed.
Masquerade, this
is another way to bully electronically. Under this, the person conceals his
identity from the victim by either pursuing a fake identity or stealing someone
else’s name. This method is opted in order to remain dominant (Kowalski and
Limber, 2007; Patchin and Hinduja, 2006). A 12 year old girl perceived that
this way is selected by students and mates to take revenge and upset others
(Mishna, et, al., 2009).
Exclusion is the act of
specifically and intentionally excluding a person from an online group. This
act is highly effective and
indirectly sends a provocative message to the target child without the need for
actual verbal deprecation (Willard,
2004).

Cyber
bullying to Students

While school systems have made great
efforts in creating and implementing immediate response plans and zero tolerance
policies, it is essential to continually scan the societal landscape to see if
additional concerns should be addressed in the area of student safety
(Pellegrini and Bartini, 2000). It has become increasingly evident that the
Internet has brought to school campuses another threat to student safety –
cyber bullying. According to a 2004 survey given by i-SAFE America, 42% of
school-aged children have been bullied while online. This percentage increased
drastically in a 2008 study that raised the statistic from 42% to 72% (Juvonen
and Gross, 2008).

Research shows that some 93% of today’s
teens use the Internet. More and more this use is for online socialization with
peers, not all of it is positive in nature (Lenhart, et. al., 2007).  Daily, students across the nation are being
bullied online and are bringing to school the residual effects of these
personal attacks (Trolley, et. al., 2006; Willard, 2007). Everyday school
administrators across the nation struggle with the desire to act on behalf of
the victimized student, but are not sure how to respond since most acts of
cyber bullying happen off campus. It is the regrettable job of administrators
to balance the needs of the victim against the judicial rights of the bully;
legal guidance and policy protocol from school boards and systems are limited
(Anderson, 2007).

Some  researchers in the field of Internet- and
computer related criminality, state that one of the most important steps a
district can take to help protect its students and protect itself from legal
liability is to have a clear and Cyber bullying 5 comprehensive policy
regarding bullying and harassment, technology, and their intersection Hinduja
and Patchin (2008). School systems face huge barriers when imposing clear and
comprehensive cyber bullying policies. It has become the easy track to apply
current zero tolerance policies against bullying to cases of cyber bullying.
While zero tolerance policies stop those who are caught, these policies do not
address educating those who are still cyber bullying. Only time and additional
study will give school systems more definitive answers to this question. For
now, school systems must wade through the available sources of information to
develop more comprehensive and proactive actions against cyber bullying.

The online devices are exploring worldwide,
providing the fastest mode of interaction and communication for all, attracting
teenagers towards itself to the greatest extent; hence boosting interaction
among individuals through Social Networking Sites (SNS). After 2009, people start using
technologies more that makes a cyber space as center of communication. Later in
2012, the gadgets like iPhones, smart phones and androids started to arise in
the market. All these mediums of communication make a cyber space more risky
for teenagers due to the threat of cyber bullying; 90% of teenagers have
observe the frequent evidences on cyberspace. 

          According
to Elledge, et. al (2013) in their study, they identified that electronic
bullying is determined by class room as well as individual level factor; where
individual’s perception of not becoming a victim of cyber bullying poses more
chances to become victim of such incidents. Moreover, because of the monitoring
of their teachers, the rate of cyber bullying in class rooms setting are
relatively less.

Sticca and
Perren (2013) points out the fact that the bully attack because of the
intention to broadcast victim irrespective of medium; as the adolescent
perceive such attack as an embarrassing and shameful incidents attached with
severe consequences to harm their public.

Social Media Engagement and Students

Perception towards Cyber bullying

 

          Through
social interactions, the world has become highly interconnected where
individuals can interact with more secrecy and less monitoring (Shal, 2016).
While this has resulted in advantage in terms of self-directed and
differentiated learning (Shal, 2016), it has contributed to a more dangerous
form of bullying which is named as cyber bullying (Masseni, 2014; Yilmaz,
2010). Because of the increased spread along with the usage of technology,
cyber bullying has become prevalent in schools and extended bullying into the
cyberspace (Yilmaz, 2010) and into the virtual experiences (Masseni, 2014).

Cyber
bullying is a new form of bullying that involves deliberate and repeated harm
that is directed at peers via electronic media (Beran, 2005). There are several
types of cyber bullying that have been identified including flaming,
harassment, cyber stalking, denigration, masquerade, outing and trickery, and
exclusion (Williard, 2005). While most people believed that bullying are
boy-dominated, studies have shown that girls are mainly involved in cyber
bullying (Stauffer, et, al., 2007); however, in other studies suggest the
opposite (Slonje and Smith, 2008). There exists little evidence on the
relationship between the age and involvement I cyber bullying (Stauffer, 2012).
In some research, they consider cyber bullying as more common among
middle-school-aged children than high school students (Slonje and Smith, 2008),
yet others point to rising involvement in cyber bullying throughout the middle
school (Kowalski and Limber, 2007).