Himself joined the Royal Navy which inspired him to write this book. The book was based on an imaginary nuclear war and combined the values of society, a philosophical theory about human nature and the Christian Bible stories into this book to reflect his idea – ‘man produces evil as bee produces honey. The term ‘Evil’ is a label which humans use to describe immoral actions that are not necessary for one’s survival. This Idea of humans are evil when In a state of nature was strongly portrayed, however, LOTT also explored other possibilities of human nature such as civilization, rationality and logic.Nevertheless ‘Evil’ was the intended theme of this book and Gilding’s idea about ‘man produces evil naturally does not hold because man produces Savagery more often than ‘evil’.
With society comes rules, morals and ethics; contrary to savagery, society is where humans are strict to the values of society therefore savagery would be viewed as immoral therefore ‘evil’. The point is that without society and morals, ‘evil’ would be nothing but savage and animal instincts and this is where moral relativism comes in.Gilding uses symbolism and allegory to compare the boys’ morals and values, while impairing the good and the evil.
In chapter four, Ralph thinks shelters are the priority but Jack thinks meat is the most important; later the hunters made up a song about killing a pig while Ralph watched them and thought It was ‘misbehaving’. This clearly Implies that Ralph still holds the values of society (In the asses) and he symbolism morals, whereas the hunters already embraced themselves into the nature which symbolism savage and compared to Ralph they seem very ‘evil’ of their actions.However if civilization does not exist or Ralph died in the plane crash, then the action f the boys would seem totally reasonable since there is no morals and ethics to restrain the boys. The fact that society views savage as immoral has a strong foundation since civilization, but at the time of the ‘Middle Ages’ there were some very extreme tortures for offenders that was very common, however they are categorized as ‘evil’ in the society now.Hence this idea of humans is evil when in a state of nature contradicted with it-self since a state of nature would have neither morals nor values therefore no evil would not exist. When humans have a lack of resources and/or laws and orders, they tend to be taken ever by their animal Instinct, and animals would not be called ‘evil’ when they kill. The descriptions of Jack goes hunting suggest that Jack has a very strong desire to kill. Gilding used simile to describe Jack as ‘dog-like’ (chapter 3) when he goes hunting.
To compare Jack with a dog suggest that he is only hunting for meat and survival, not for entertainment or pleasure. Although the desires were bounded by his morals at first but the temptation of meat finally made him kill a pig. The hunter features displayed by Jack Include ‘sprinter’, ‘stole forward’, ‘breathed In gently (chapter three) as If he vagary, but his actions (in chapter three) were for nothing else than survival which would not be classified as ‘evil’.If Jack had enough meat for a life time and everything he needed to survive, he would appear as a decent human with rational thinking described as ‘Marching approximately in step in two parallel lines’ (chapter 1). At this point, one may think Jack could still act rationally even without resources. However Gilding used metonymy to described Ralph and Piggy as ‘a shock of hair’ and ‘a bag of fat’ (chapter eleven) when Ralph and Piggy represent Rationality; and later Piggy ailed by a rock indicating rationality would slow down one’s reaction to a certain situation therefore he is seen as a waste product by the other boys.
Although savagery is strongly portrayed throughout the book, there are other alternatives to consider. More often than not humans would act and think morally and rationally, and evilness is only one option out of all. There are several evidences in LOTT suggesting that human has the choice of being something other than evil. Repetition was used to highlight the alternatives other than evil on this island. ‘The conch’ has been blown any times before it was destroyed, and this was the closest object to a society the boys ever had found from the island.The conch itself is meaningless since it came from the natural world, but the group of British boys gave it a meaning – authority and society, therefore as long as the conch exists, there would be certain restrains and rules on the island. Also Piggy’s glasses were repeatedly mentioned for Piggy’s sight or to start a fire; the glasses are a symbolism of knowledge and wisdom, the fact that the hunters used the glasses to start a fire which suggest that they still need knowledge and wisdom to survive.
Simon repeatedly to hallucinate about the pig’s head – the Lord of the Flies, and himself symbolizes human in peace with nature, and acts morally not because of the restrain of the society, it is because of his natural state of mind says it is the right thing to do. The repetition of these civilized symbols kept reminding the boys that there are other options, other than pure evil. LOTT has been relevant to this society for more than 50 years, and the reason is that this book explored the evilness which corresponds with the reader’s mind, where evil loud transform from savagery.Different individuals interpret the book differently, and some interpretations are very contradictory. As it was proved, without showing evilness in action or thoughts, there would be no evidence of that human produces evil.
To sum up, LOTT explored the human nature in depth, but not necessarily total ‘evilness’ since evil comes after savagery, therefore human would have to be savagery first to produce evil. Now the real question is that would society ever come to an end just like LOTT, when people have no more rules to be restrained from, therefore acting savagely?